The 10 Oldest Languages Still Spoken in the World Today. Irish has the oldest vernacular literature of any language in Western Europe. While the rest of Europe was speaking their own languages and writing in Latin, the Irish decided that they wanted to write in their own language instead.
Canon Shinkwin was talking to the older people in Borlin (Bantry, West Cork), in Irish around 1903 and asking them to speak Irish to the small children at night with a view towards arresting the decline of the language. There were 4 million Irish speakers pre famine in 1840 and in 1900 probably at least 10 million worldwide whose parents had been Irish speakers, Borlin Bull Irish Civil War.
1884, West Musketry Presentment Sessions, Approval to new Road at Gurteenakilla to Serve 15 Townlands to connect to Macroom/Bantry Road. Up to That Point people could not use a cart and had auto carry there produce on the backs of horses or their own backs.
These session were held to forward proposed works to the Grand Jury for approval. The Justices referred ago are Magistrates associated cesspayers were generally prosperous local farmers. when Cork County Council came in existence in 1899 these session were no more.
The Magistrates were abolished in 1922 by the Irish Free State and replaced by District Justices full time paid judges.,
Of there ~agistrates mention John Edward Barrett married the daughter of William O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass Castle and managed his wife’s property as well as other local estates , he too lived in Carriganass Castle after his father in laws death. His brother Dr. Barrett appears as a landlord in Kilcrohane and other areas possibly through the William O’Sullivan connection. He was married to the daughter of Charles Roycroft who came from Boulteen, Bantry/Durrus prominent in nationalist politics. His son in law H. B. Minhear is another magistrate. Norwood is Dunmanway and Warren Kilmurray.
The Torrens system is simple. The State guarantees land title on a document known as the Folio instead of a donkey and car load of deeds and documents arising from the first system of land registration in Ireland the Registry of Deeds.
That system was not born out of altruism but another instrument of the Penal Laws to turn the screws on the native Irish under the Penal Laws. Think of the Ukraine and Russia.
One of the unintended consequences of the Registry of Deeds is that there are about 4.5 million memorials (summary of property transactions) beautifully restored about 40 years ago under the Fund of Suitors and are a trove of genealogical and other information. A project in the early stages by the Property Registration Authority aims to digitalise the entire collection and make it fully available free online.
In the meantime a worldwide volunteer project is transcribing the deeds.
In Ireland the introduction of the Torrens system coincided with the establishment of the Land Commission. Perhaps the largest voluntary land transfer in world history. About 70% of the land area of the Island of Ireland was transferred from the landlords to the tenant who became full legal owner subject to an annuity to the Land Commission.
At least on the independence of this part of Ireland the land question was settled unlike Hungary where in the 1930s a tiny proportion of the population owned over 90% of the land.
For a history of Land Tenure in Ireland:
From Dispossession to Digitisation: the Transformation of Property Registration Services in Ireland
1832 Charles Armstrong, Formerly 1832 Bantry Cholera Hospital, Medical Officer Crookhaven Dispensary, Physician Cork General Dispensary, Surgeon Constabulary and Coast Guard Goleen and Rock Island. Author of Petition Preying on Medical Grievances (Non payment or minimal payment for quasi legal services) presented to both Houses of Parliament in UK
MD Glasgow 1838, MRCS England 1833, FRCI 1844. Doctor, formerly Medical Officer Crookhaven Dispensary, Physician Cork General Dispensary, Surgeon Constabulary and Coast Guard Goleen and Rock island. 1857 Medical Referee various Assurance Companies During cholera epidemic 1832. 1857 Cork 34, King St. Author of Petition on Medical Grievances presented to both Houses of Parliament in UK
Early Doctors and Apothecaries (Chemists), Cork City and County
In November 1901 a Splendid Public Demonstration was held on the Outskirts of the Quiet little Village of Durrus to Establish a Branch of the United Irish League in the Parish.
J. Dukelow is probably Jack Dukelow of Rossmore
James Gilhooley MP (1847-1916) was a publican and draper in Bantry, and was jailed under the Coercion legislation during the Land War 1880s. He was elected to Parliament and kept his seat in each succeeding election until his death. Evidence was given by the Clerk of the Carrigbui Petty Sessions in a case in Bantry that Gilhooley had the licence of a public house in Durrus which was held on his behalf by his sister Agnes. On the Parnellite split he opposed Parnell and later joined the faction led by O’Brien and known as the All for Ireland Party (AFIP). There was a public meeting in Durrus which founded the United Irish League in November 1901 which he and fellow MPs Crean and Flynn addressed. Among the attendance were J D Sullivan DC, Jeremiah Hurley DC, J Dukelow, T Dillon, S Kingston, J Moss and numerous others. The parish priest who chaired the meeting recalled the bad days of 1881-1886 for the people of Muintervara and had no doubt that by Christmas of that year the vast bulk of the parish would be members of the United Irish League.
Gilhooley addressed an enthusiastic meeting in Durrus on January 1910 presided over by Mr. John D. Sullivan. Bonfires were lit in the street, it was market day in the village and large numbers of country people were present. Mr Gilhooley contested the two elections in 1910 as an Independent, supporting O’Brien; his opponent was Mr. O’Leary, Ahakista Cottage, the U.I.L. (United Ireland League/Redmondite) candidate. Gilhooley had support in Durrus in this election and his opponent was strong in Kilcrohane. His election agent was Jasper Woulfe, Solicitor, later Crown Prosecutor and TD, Skibbereen. He would later be an Independent TD for West Cork. Gilhooley up to this time had been elected unopposed for 18 years. In the later election of 1910 there were disturbances in Bantry, when rival factions fought, some coming from Cork; over a two-day court hearing, 45 were prosecuted for riotous behaviour. In September 1910 a case of assault was brought at the Petty Sessions by Patrick Burke, Coomkeen. He alleged that while leaving Kilcrohane with his niece driving a trap he was set upon by three locals Arundel, Donovan and Donovan shouting ‘Up the Mollies’ they were convicted and bound over to the peace.
In the election in December Gilhooley had the use of two motor cars to bring constituents to the polling station. On examining the type of questions raised by Mr. Gilhooley at Westminster, one is struck at the similarity with those raised by a typical country T.D., at Dail Eireann. Gilhooley attended a monster meeting in Bantry in 1888, attended by 5-6,000 people, to set up a branch of the United Traders Association and Industrial League, to promote the purchase of Irish goods and the boycott of English goods. There is a memory of fish sellers from Gearahies coming to Durrus to sell fish and roaring ‘up the Mollies’ in connection with political controversy at that time this was probably the second election of 1910, when emotions were inflamed. In the February 1910 election there were 326 votes cast out of 407.
There were disturbances in Durrus in January 1911 between ‘Redmondites’ and ‘All for Irelanders’ and a force of between 8 and 10 policemen were unable to quell the disturbances which lasted for over an hour, the main street was regarded as unsafe to traverse. Tension continued into September 1911 at a court hearing in Bantry into those entitled to be on the electoral register. Mr O’Leary in his dual capacity as a Barrister and potential political representative opposed the inclusion of various people in Durrus as they allegedly did not meet the governing criteria.
An assembly in ancient Ireland for the promulgation of laws and for competition in artistic, intellectual, and physical prowess — compare AENACH or an Irish folk festival or convention patterned on the ancient feis and featuring games and competitions and usually traditional Irish music and dancing — compare EISTEDDFOD
1518, Kinsale Archduke Ferdinand Visit to Kinsale as a result of a storm, The visit was a record by Laurent Vital. It is suggested that his account is there inspiration of 1518, Kinsale Archduke Ferdinand Visit. Clandestine Marriage. Durer’s Depiction of Irish Soldiers and Peasants.
The reference to savage is the local Irish of Gaelic origin. At that time Kinsale was a Norman settlement
Rincurran, Kinsale, Co. Cork, Baptisms, Church of Ireland 1849, 1860 and St. Multose, Kinsale from 1683.
Plan of the Siege and Battle of Kinsale (Ceann Sáile) 1601, Petition to the Pope in 1484 requesting that no more clergy be sent from Bath to St. Multose and that only native clergy be appointed as English clergy could not administer sacraments in Irish, Prosperity in the 18th century, Shipping News in ‘A Short History of Kinsale’
Collections for Evicted Tenants, Castlehaven/Myross, Myross, Ardfield, Rathbarry. 1892 Collection Ballyroe. 1893, Clonakilty Evicted Tenants Fund. Like a Mini Census. Fiery address of James Gilhooley, M.P., in Goleen on Evictions. Gilhooley ‘The Irish People Have Never Acknowledged this Right of Any Nation In the World To Govern Them.
Looking at the unfolding disaster in Ukraine Gilhooly’s words are very apt.
Parliamentary Commission on Land, Bantry, 1844, Evidence on Sub-Division, Rental Levels, Soil, Fertility, Bribery, Opression and Eviction by Lord Kenmare, Sbibbereen Agricultural Society, Bailiffs, Driving, Witnesses included Rev. Somers Payne, Land Agent, County Grand Master, Orange Order, Michael Murphy, Donemark, Formerly Farmer, Miller, Corn Agent, Richard White, Landlord Inchiclogh only Landlord to Give Leases in District, Samuel Hutchins, Landlords Ardnagashel, John O’Connell, Middleman, Rev. C. Freeman, Curate, Bantry.