7th to 10th Century Irish Law Texts with Diagram of the Seven Tunics and Three Humours of the Eye, from Irish Medieval Medical Treatises.

7th to 10th Century Irish Law Texts with Diagram of the Seven Tunics and Three Humours of the Eye, from Irish Medieval Medical Treatises.

Courtesy Four Courts Press, ‘The Old Library’ TCD, 1712-2012

Early Irish Medicine from Dian Céch, the Irish God of Healing, Queen Macha Mong Ruadha legendary Hospital at Emain Macha pre 377 BC, Women Physicians under Brehon Laws, Arabic medical texts translated to Irish, Hereditary Medical families, the O’Cassidy Medical Manuscripts largest collection of Medical Manuscript Literature World Wide pre 1800 and the career of Doctor Richard Gumbelton Daunt (1843-1893), of Kilcascan Castle, Co, Cork family, Pioneer in Public Health Medicine, in Brazil 19th century, Genealogist.


Lawyers and Four types of Judges and their renumeration in Ireland 600-900 AD


10-Scan 1748
09-Scan 1747
08-Scan 1746
07-Scan 1749
06-Scan 1744
05-Scan 1743
04-Scan 1742
03-Scan 1741
02-Scan 1740
01-Scan 1739

Seefin Electoral Area, Muintervara, (1859-1920) Landlords



Seefin Electoral Area, Landlords





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There are 17 townlands that we know about in . This represents 100% of all the area in .

Ardahill 182 A, 3 R, 13 P

Ardanenig 137 A, 2 R, 37 P

Carravilleen 249 A, 0 R, 12 P

Derryculvane 365 A, 1 R, 9 P

Dromnea 388 A, 0 R, 32 P

Farranamanagh 323 A, 3 R, 26 P

Faunmore 263 A, 2 R, 38 P

Glanalin 99 A, 0 R, 39 P

Gorteanish 346 A, 1 R, 18 P

Gortnakilly 493 A, 1 R, 12 P

Gouladoo 294 A, 0 R, 10 P

Knockeens 312 A, 2 R, 15 P

Maulnaskehy 535 A, 3 R, 5 P

Pointabulloge Island 1 A, 2 R, 25 P

Raferigeen 196 A, 1 R, 23 P

Rosskerrig 600 A, 3 R, 26 P

Rosskerrig Mountain 284 A, 1 R, 20 P



Ardahill, 1859, James O’Connell

1873, Daniel O’Sullivan, replaced 1881 by Daniel O’Sullivan, same 1884.


​​Historic: title as originating with a lease of 17th March 1752 to commence 1st November 1782 by Dr John Whetcombe, Bishop of Clonfert, Kilmacduragh and Kilfenora and his wife Eliza to William Roberts of Derryclivane, lands at Kerkin, Dromnea, Gurtahilla Ruskeragh 6 gneeves for 999 years and a rent of £150 per annum. O’Donovan, Ardahill House John O’Connell  son in law of O’Donovans

Ardanenig,1859, Richard O’Donovan

Timothy Arundel, small lot

1873, Philip Wolfe

1873 Daniel O’Sullivan

1883 Reps Philip Wolfe

Historic: Richard O’Donovan, Fort Lodge, Durrus

Carravilleen, James O’Connell

Seefin Electoral Area, Muintervara, (1859-1920) Landlords

Glanlough Electoral District, Munitervara Peninsula, Landlords, 1880-1921


Glanlough, Landlords,1880-1921

Some of the dates on the Valuation Office ledgers are difficult to interpret but this gives the broad thrust



Glanlough has an area of 15.5 km² / 3,830.6 acres / 6.0 square miles.


There are 10 townlands that we know about in . This represents 100% of all the area in .



Doonour 248 A, 3 R, 16 P

Fahane 144 A, 2 R, 7 P

Foilakilly 361 A, 3 R, 30 P

Gerahies 341 A, 2 R, 20 P

Glanlough 1192 A, 0 R, 4 P

Gortalassa 265 A, 2 R, 34 P

Owen’s Island 1 A, 3 R, 31 P

Reenacappul 200 A, 3 R, 16 P

Rossnacaheragh 855 A, 1 R, 29 P

Tullig 217 A,


Doonour, 1891,  William and reps  Richard J.M.Gumbleton, reference to a new house slated.

1898, Mr. Gumbleton and Mrs. Gumbleton

Fahane, 1896,  William and reps  Richard J.M.Gumbleton

1898, Mr. Gumbleton and Mrs. Gumbleton

1907 sub letting to John Driscoll not sanctioned by Landlord

Foilakilly,1881, William and Richard J.M.Gumbleton.

1898, Mr. Gumbleton and Mrs. Gumbleton

Gerahies,1884, William and Richard J.M.Gumbleton.

1886, William and reps  Richard J.M.Gumbleton

John E. Barrett, then Rev. John Pratt probably former teachers house

1896, William and reps  Richard J.M.Gumbleton

John E. Barrett, Church Education Society vacant by 1884.

1898, Mr. Gumbleton and Mrs. Gumbleton

Glanlough, Catherine O’Sullivan then James O’Donovan, Lick, Skibbereen.

Mrs. Gernon

Kate O’Donovan and Mrs.Gernon

Dr. Donovan??

Kate O’Donovan them Mrs.Gernon

Miss O’Donovan and Mrs.Gernon

Kate O’Sullivan then Sullivan replaced by O’Donovan and Mrs.Gernon

Jeremiah Donovan, Lick

1890, Jeremiah O’Donovan then Daniel O’Donovan.

Sheeps Head, Kilcrohane, Landlords, 1858-1879




In Durrus a significant part of the land was owned by the Evanson family from 1690 comprising the old McCarthy lands stretching about 10 km between the DurrusRiver and Dunmanus Bay bounded by the hills to the north.The family got into financial difficulty about 1715 and the land were sold to Francis Bernard of Bandon ancestor of the Earls of Bandon. Successive leases expired on the death of Rev. Alleyn Evanson in 1854 and the Earl of Bandon went into possession. He expended sums in rebuilding Durrus Village, pier and  stores at Sea Lodge and promoted good agriculture. He primarily lived in Bandon and  London but did spend time in Durrus Court as did his sister married to Lord Aldworth.

In contrast  Kilcrohane after the death of the O’Donovan brothers landlord and magistrates there were none resident and the land was held by a motley patchwork quilt of landlords, agents none of which helped the area.

These records were abstracted from the Valuation Office Records 1859 1879.

There are 29 townlands that we know about in . This represents 100% of all the area in .

Aughaleigue Beg 278 A, 1 R, 0 P

Aughaleigue More 286 A, 0 R, 34 P

Ballyieragh 614 A, 2 R, 17 P

Ballynatra 42 A, 0 R, 20 P

Ballyroon 117 A, 3 R, 18 P

Ballyroon Mountain 472 A, 3 R, 24 P

Caher 260 A, 1 R, 37 P

Cahergal 123 A, 3 R, 2 P

Caher-Mountain 218 A, 1 R, 14 P

Caherurlagh 31 A, 0 R, 22 P

Caherurlagh Mountain North 28 A, 1 R, 22 P

Caherurlagh Mountain South 24 A, 0 R, 2 P

Clash 97 A, 0 R, 2 P

Dooneen 182 A, 0 R, 33 P

Eskraha 333 A, 1 R, 19 P

Glanroon 143 A, 3 R, 1 P

Gortavallig 312 A, 1 R, 25 P

Kilcrohane 299 A, 2 R, 35 P

Killeen North 376 A, 3 R, 7 P

Killeen South 357 A, 1 R, 0 P

Knockroe 224 A, 0 R, 4 P

Laharandota 68 A, 1 R, 31 P

Laharandota Mountain 33 A, 1 R, 29 P

Letter East 256 A, 2 R, 26 P

Letter Lower 50 A, 1 R, 2 P

Letter Mountain 239 A, 1 R, 10 P

Letter West 116 A, 3 R, 31 P

Reagh 221 A, 2 R, 30 P

Tooreen 364 A, 2 R, 15 P


Ballyroon. Ballyroon, Kilcrohane, acquired 1824 by Charles Evanson, The Elder, Ronayne’s Court, Cork,  Durrus born from Lord Riversdale, Ludlow Tonson, Hon Rev. Tonson for £250.   The Evanson interest in Kilcrohane/Ahakista was acquired in 1825 by Charles Evanson, Senior, Ronaynes Court, Douglas, Cork from Lord Riversdale/Tonson.  THis was a part of the extended Hull family of Lemcon, Schull who in turn were probably granted the lands from Richard Boyle’s family or Beechers.

Aughaleigue Beg,  John Gumbleton then William and R. J. Gumbleton jointly.

Aughaleigue More,  reps Rev. Alleyn Evanson, then Mary B. Furlong.

Ballyieragh, Rev. Charles Evanson then Cavanson?, then Rev.Robert M.Evanson,, reps Rev. Robert Evanson, W.S..Bird.

Ballynatra,  John B. Gumbelton then R.J.Gumbleton and William Gumbleton

Ballyroon, REv. John Gumbelton then R. J. Gumbleton and William Gumbleton.

Ballyroon Mountain,  Rev. John Gumbelton then R. J. Gumbleton and William Gumbleton.

The Wire that Changed the World

In 1858 the first ever message to be transmitted across an ocean – a note of congratulations from Queen Victoria to President Buchanan of the United States — was sent from Valentia Island in County Kerry to Trinity Bay in Newfoundland. The 98-word message took 16 hours to transmit, and the US President’s 143-word response was sent in just 10 hours. Improvements in cable technology meant that when the next successful cable was laid, in 1866, messages that had once taken two weeks by ship could be sent in minutes. Valentia Island in County Kerry played a major role in connecting the old and new worlds for the first time, placing Ireland at the ‘cross hairs’ of the emerging global communications industry. The Valentia Transatlantic Cable Foundation Board, established in May 2016, is now working with the community at Valentia and Kerry County Council to pursue UNESCO Heritage status for the Transatlantic Cable ensemble at Valentia. Organised by the Trinity Long Room Hub in partnership with the Valentia Transatlantic Cable Foundation on Thursday, to explore the significance of this historic achievement and hear how the ‘wire that changed the world’ continues to inspire us today.

1863.  Julius Reuter and William Siemens  and  the South-Western of Ireland Telegraph Company, Linking Cork to Crookhaven by Telegraph  and  British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company, Cork to Cape Clear 


1863, The Fibre Optic Broadband of the 1860s, Opening of Telegraph Office Skibbereen, Wires Extended to Baltimore and Submerged Cable to Sherkin. The American Intelligence will be Received Six Hours Sooner, Cork Market News to Be Received in Morning.


An Old Man Recounts: The First Time I visited Dunmanway c 1790, The Roads were Bad, My Sister and I were in Two Panniers at Each Side of A Horse My Mother on A Saddle in Between, Then Cars with Block Wheels Sawn of of a Thick Tree Bound Round With Iron, The They Got What They Called Scotch Cars With Spokes and Felloes at Opening of The Office of The Electric and International Telegraph Company , Dunmanway, Co.Cork, 1865. Messages from Cork, London and Crookhaven.

The start of the Communication Revolution, Picture of ‘The Atlantic Telegraph Cable Fleet’ at Berehaven, Bantry Bay, 28th July 1866, held at Cable and Wireless Archive



The Atlantic Cable Medal of 1866
by Herman Blanton
Introduction: This article by Herman Blanton appears in the July 2006 issue of The Numismatist, the magazine of the American Numismatic Association. The Atlantic Cable website is pleased to have been of assistance to Herman in his research for this article, and appreciates his permission to reproduce the article here.There are many pages of appendices which are not shown in this web version of the article; these may be viewed in the expanded PDF version.–Bill BurnsThe Atlantic Cable Medal of 1866
Herman BlantonThe completion of the Transatlantic Cable in 1866 is an important milestone in history, especially the history of communication. The cable made it possible for North America and Europe to be connected telegraphically for comparatively instant communication, news could henceforth be transmitted between continents in a matter of a few minutes instead of 10 days each way for transatlantic ship passage. The year 2006 marks the 140th anniversary of the successful laying of the cable. The subject medal was presented in 1867 to show appreciation for the efforts spent and risks taken to complete the task.The transatlantic cable was the dream of more than a single person, but no one person stands out more than Cyrus Field as the driving force behind the project to develop and install the transatlantic cable. In 19th century parlance, Field is referred to as the “projector” of the cable. In this article we only touch on the history of the project as our interest is primarily about a commemorative medal issued for it. For history of the transatlantic cable see the bibliography for suggested reading.The 1857 & 1858 CablesThe first attempt at a transatlantic cable was in 1857 as a joint enterprise between England and the United States. Twenty five hundred nautical miles of cable was designed, manufactured and loaded upon two ships, as no single ship was able to handle such a great load. The engineers / scientists among the expedition included Charles Bright, William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin), Edward Whitehouse and Samuel Morse.  Starting from Valentia Bay Ireland, they laid four hundred miles of cable before it broke and vanished under the sea. Cyrus Field signaled the ships of the expedition to meet, to discuss the matter, review what had been learned so far and do experiments; afterwards they returned to England. The cost of the failed expedition was ₤225,000 (about ₤14,000,000 today), but Field was not deterred.In 1858 the second expedition commenced, the chief engineer was William Everett, who designed a new “paying out” machine for laying the cable; they had determined the original machine had caused the first failure by braking two hard causing the cable to break in two. The other engineers were Charles Bright, Samuel Canning, William Thomson and C.V. de Sauty. Cyrus Field again led the expedition and this year two ships each carrying half the cable met in the mid north Atlantic, spliced the cable ends and laid cable in both directions simultaneously. As the cable was laid, an electrician aboard ship on each end tested the cable. A terrific storm buffeted the fleet and nearly sank the Agamemnon, pushing her off course by 200 miles. After the storm was over, the fleet met and reviewed damages. It was decided to abandon the cable so far laid and lost, and start over, figuring there was sufficient cable left to complete the project.After laying approximately 150 miles in each direction, the cable broke and was lost again. A review showed the cable failed at a place where it had been damaged in the storm (from sliding and crashing on deck). Still undaunted, Field returned to London to get supplies to restart the cable laying again, albeit some of the directors gave up hope and resigned from the company. On July 29th, 1858 the ships met and spliced the cable in the mid Atlantic, again. Through much effort and many trials, the cable was successfully landed in Trinity Bay Newfoundland on August 5th, 1858.The cable did not function very well and it was until August 16th that the first official message was transmitted, a letter of congratulations from Queen Victoria to President Buchanan, within a month however, the cable had failed completely.Map of the 1858 Atlantic Cable Route (Courtesy of Bill Burns)
From Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 21, 1858The Great EasternBefore another attempt to lay a cable could be made, the US Civil War erupted putting the project on hold, it would be 1865 before another expedition was started. In the meantime the world’s largest ship was completed in 1858 and put into service, the Leviathan, renamed the Great Eastern. She was the largest ship ever built until that time, dwarfing every other ship afloat. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel to be the greatest ship ever made, it proved to be too far ahead of its time to be a commercial success, and was converted from a passenger/mail liner to a “cable ship.”  “She was six times larger than any previous ship. Nearly 700 feet (213 m) long and 82 feet (25 m) broad, she would carry 4,000 passengers (or 10,000 soldiers as a troopship) and 6,000 tons of cargo.” It would take 40 more years before ship designers would surpass her in size, two notables of the later large ships; the Lusitania, built in 1906, was 762 ft and the Titanic, built in 1912, was 883 ft.The following two images are of the Great Eastern during the 1865 expedition, drawn by Robert Dudley and included in William Russell’s book The Atlantic Telegraph, published in (1865). Provided here courtesy of Bill Burns, who operates the Web site History of the Atlantic Cable & Submarine Telegraphy (accessed 1 July 2005).The Great Eastern under weigh, July 23: escort and other ships
introduced being the Terrible, the Sphinx, the Hawk, and the Caroline.Coiling the cable in the after-tank on board the Great Eastern
at Sheerness: visit of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales on May 24.The 1865 CableFor the 1865 expedition the cable was redesigned, both the copper core and the insulation. The new cable weighed 3,750 lb per mile whereas the 1857 cable had weighed 2,000 lb per mile. Cyrus Field again led the expedition, as well as coordinating the funding for it. Captain James Anderson was on loan from the Cunard shipping line to command the Great Eastern. The electricians that year were C.V. de Sauty, William Thomson and Cromwell Varley, the chief engineer was Samuel Canning.With the European end of the cable landed in Ireland, the Great Eastern began laying out cable on July 23rd, 1865. The cable laying operation went much smoother than before and the principal difficulties were with the cable itself. From time to time faults were detected, with each fault detected the cable was cut, retrieved back on board, repaired and spliced before resuming the paying out of the cable. When the expedition was within 600 miles of Newfoundland, another fault was detected, during the retrieval of the cable it broke and vanished, again, under the sea.Chief engineer Canning determined to retrieve the broken cable by using lengths of wire rope connected together with shackles and terminated with a grappling hook. Captain Anderson navigated the ship to the east and south of where the cable lay, Canning lowered the hook to the bottom of the sea, the ship steamed northward until the cable was hooked. The cable was raised until a shackle broke; sending the cable and a length of the wire rope to the ocean floor. The process was repeated with some adjustments in the technique, each attempt failing, until they were out of wire rope. There was not enough cable left to start over, so the expedition returned to England, a failure, yet again.The 1866 CableLearning from the 1865 expedition, changes were made in the cable design, to the cable paying out machine and to the Great Eastern itself. With these changes the crew could retrieve the cable by running the paying-out machine in reverse without snagging the cable in the ship’s propeller.With the shore end of the cable landed in Ireland, the Great Eastern started out on the inauspicious day of July 13th 1866, a Friday. The chief engineer was Samuel Canning, the chief electrician Willoughby Smith and consultant William Thomson. By Tuesday the 24th of July, the Great Eastern had passed the point where the 1865 cable had broken; traveling 60 miles to the south of it, for the expedition had plans to retrieve the 1865 cable and did not want the two cables close to each other for the grappling procedure. On July 27th, 1866 the cable was spliced with the shore-end at Heart’s Content Newfoundland, the cable was laid. Cyrus Field sent the following report to New York, “Heart’s Content, July 27 – we arrived here at nine o’clock this morning. All well. Thank God, the cable is laid, and is in perfect working order. Cyrus W Field.” [Field, Henry M. 1893. “The Story of the Atlantic Telegraph.” p. 344.]The expedition now turned to the task of retrieving and splicing the 1865 cable, some 600 miles to the east. Two of the ships in the cable fleet, the Albany and the Terrible, departed Heart’s Content on August 1st, 1866. The Great Eastern and Medway followed on August 9th. For more than three weeks and with much difficulty, the ships fished the ocean floor for the cable. Success finally achieved on the 30th attempt, the cable was spliced on September 2nd. They were able to do this through an ingenious technique of lifting the cable only part way up off the ocean floor, greatly reducing the load on the grappling ropes as well as on the cable itself. This they did at multiple points along the cable, each rope connected to a buoy supporting only part of the load of the sea cable. Then they intentionally broke the end of the cable so the main length of cable could be raised completely and spliced.  After the splice was made at sea, the Great Eastern laid cable westward to Heart’s Content and landed the second cable on September 7th, 1866.The successful completion of the cable was met which much celebration and recognition in England and the United States. One of the celebrations was the awarding of a gold medal, in Liverpool, the subject of this article.The primary source is the minute books of the American Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool. The Chamber was founded in the year 1801, in Liverpool, as an English association to promote trade between England and the USA. The association was dissolved in 1908. A survey of the minutes tells that cotton was the primary trading commodity. As the telegraph cable project overlapped the US Civil War, the minute books are an interesting read from the cotton trade aspect as well as the subject medal.The Chronology of the MedalThe 1866 cable was landed at Heart’s Content Newfoundland on July 27th 1866. The 1865 cable was retrieved from the ocean floor, spliced and tested on the 2nd of September 1866. The main company of the expedition arrived back in England the same month; this is when the history of the medal commences.[Note: The chronology of the medal published in this version is abridged; the full version includes transcriptions of complete sections from the Minute Books of the American Chamber of Commerce Liverpool; the sections related to the Atlantic Cable Medal and banquet. If the lector would find tracing the medal’s origin step by step interesting, please seek out the full version (see below). (ed.)]Horizontal Scroll: American Chamber of Commerce Liverpool      Laying of the Atlantic Telegraph CableThis Chamber was invited by the Chamber of Commerce to cooperate with that Body in a banquet to be given to the principal gentlemen connected with the successful completion of the Atlantic Cable but it was not deemed expedient that this Chamber as an associated Body should take part in the proposed entertainment. It was however considered proper that the Chamber as the oldest Mercantile Association in Liverpool and as representing in a special manner the American trade should in some way make its sense of the great importance of the completion of this undertaking and of the skill and perseverance of those by whom it has been accomplished. It was therefore resolved after full consideration that handsome gold medals commemorative of the event should be presented by the Chamber to the Chiefs of the Departments engaged in the work, viz. To Captain Sir James Anderson, Sir Samuel Canning, Mr. Willoughby Smith and Mr. Cyrus W. Field. The Medals have been struck by Messrs Wyon of London from designs submitted by them and approved by the Chamber and it remains for the Chamber to decide how they shall be presented.Liverpool January 1867Resolved That the Report be received and adopted.[The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce invited the American Chamber of Commerce Liverpool; these were two distinct organizations. (author)].Horizontal Scroll: American Chamber of Commerce Liverpool     Monday 18th February 1867Atlantic Cable, Presentation of Medals            The President was requested to write to Sir James Anderson, Sir Samuel Canning, Mr. Willoughby Smith and Mr. Cyrus W. Field to intimate that the Chamber had resolved to present a Gold Medal to each of them to commemorate the successful laying of the Cable and to enquire whether Thursday the 14th of March would suit them to be present at a Banquet when they would be presented.
            Mr. Maclean undertook to see Mr. Eberle as to the arrangements for the Banquet and to report to the next Meeting.Horizontal Scroll: Mr. Willoughby Smith’s book    [From Mr. Willoughby Smith’s book, a transcription of the letter of invitation from the American Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool.]On the 19th February, 1867, I received the following letter:American Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool, February 18th, 1867.Dear Sir,—The American Chamber of Commerce of Liverpool being desirous of commemorating the successful completion of the Atlantic Cable between England and America, resolved in September last to present Gold Medals to yourself, Sir Samuel Canning, Sir James Anderson, and Mr. Cyrus W. Field, as representing the enterprise.The Medals are now ready, and it is proposed that they should be presented at a banquet to be given by the Chamber at Liverpool on the 14th of March next.I have ascertained that this day will suit the convenience of Captain Sir James Anderson and Mr. Cyrus W. Field, and I shall be obliged if you will let me know as early as possible whether you will be able to honour the Chamber with your presence at the time proposed, or if not, what other day in that week will suit you, as Sir James Anderson and Mr. Field leave England in the following week.I remain,
Yours truly,
Anglo-American Telegraph Co.,
London.Horizontal Scroll: The Illustrated London News     THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWSNo. 1419 – Vol. L. SATURDAY, MARCH 30, 1867. With a supplement, FIVE PENCE
AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AT LIVERPPOOLThe American Chamber of Commerce at Liverpool resolved some months ago that a gold medal should be made and presented by the Chamber to Sir Samuel Canning, chief engineer; Mr. Cyrus W. Field, of New York, the original projector of the Atlantic Telegraph; Sir James Anderson, the Commander of the Great Eastern steamship; and Mr. Willoughby Smith, the electrician, in commemoration of the successful laying of the Atlantic Telegraph cable.It should be observed that the American Chamber of Commerce is the oldest commercial association in Liverpool, having been founded in the year 1801, principally through the instrumentality of the late Mr. William Rathbone. The Chamber consists of the principal firms in Liverpool, English and American, engaged in the American trade, which as many of our readers are aware, is the most important branch of commerce in Liverpool. It has also, on several occasions been instrumental in effecting improvements of the mercantile law of this country. The Merchants and Factors Act, of 1842, which effected, in that branch of the law probably one of the greatest improvements of modern time, was originated and finally carried mainly by efforts of this Chamber. The Bill of Lading Act, of 1855, another public measure, by which the remedy of consignees of cargo for damage to goods on shipboard was greatly facilitated, was likewise obtained by the American Chamber of Liverpool.The medal, of which we give an Illustration, was designed and manufactured by Mr. Wyon. It is of solid gold, weighing more than three quarters of a pound. On one side is represented the Great Eastern steam-ship, in full sail upon the ocean, encircled by the words “Atlantic Telegraph Cable,” with the heraldic arms and legends of the kingdom of Great Britain and of the United States of America beneath the ship. On the reverse side is engraved in a scroll cut specially for each of the four gold medals the name of the gentleman to whom it is given, below which are the arms and legend of the town of Liverpool.MEDAL PRESENTED BY THE AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AT LIVERPOOL TO THOSE ENGAGED IN LAYING THE ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH.The presentation took place, on the 14th ult., at a banquet given by the Chamber to the four gentlemen we have named and to the Hon. C.F. Adams, the Minister of the United States in this country. The entertainment was sumptuously and elegantly prepared in the Law Association Rooms, Cook-street. Mr. William Rathbone, jun. (grandson of the late Mr. William Rathbone, who founded the Chamber) occupied the chair on this occasion; but Mr. Gair, being at the present time the president of the Chamber; also took part in the proceedings. Sir Samuel Canning was, unfortunately, not able to come; but Mr. Cyrus Field, Captain Sir James Anderson, and Mr. Willoughby Smith were seated on the Chairman’s right hand, while the American Minister sat on his left. The Mayor of Liverpool, the United States Consul (Mr. T.H. Dudley) and the Vice-Consul, the Hon. C. Fisher, Attorney-General of New Brunswick; Major-General Sir John Garvock; Captain Prowse, R.N.; the Venerable Archdeacon Jones; Mr. Ralph Brocklebank, chairman of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board; Mr. Malcom Ross, president of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce; and Mr. Hugh Mason, chairman of the Lancashire Cotton-Spinners’ Association, were among the guests, and had the occasion to speak in their turns. Mr. Rathbone, who performed the honours of the table with much grace, proposed the health of the “Projector of the Atlantic Telegraph and his Assistants at Laying the Cable,” at the same time handing a medal to each of the three gentlemen present, Mr. Cyrus Field, Sir James Anderson, and Mr. Willoughby Smith, who were entitled to receive it. These gentlemen returned thanks, and several other toasts were proposed and acknowledged. A telegram was sent from the dinner-table to President Johnson and received in less than half an hour in Newfoundland.[end of newspaper article]The four medal recipients.Mr. Cyrus W. FieldCaptain Sir James AndersonSir Samuel CanningMr. Willoughby SmithThe Atlantic MedalThe four gold Atlantic Cable medals were made by the firm J.S. and A.B. Wyon of 287 Regent St. London. This is the address noted in the correspondence; the address imprinted inside the medal case is “2 Lanham Chambers, London, W.” Joseph Shepherd Wyon and Alfred Benjamin Wyon were brothers, members of the famous Wyon family of medallists and engravers.Obverse: The shields of Great Britain and of the United States, superimposed upon the ocean, with mottoes below. Above is the Great Eastern steamship. The motto on ribbon beneath the shield of the United Kingdom; “DIEU ET MON DROIT.” The motto on ribbon beneath the United States shield: “E PLURIBUS UNUM.” The central design is appropriately surrounded by an unbroken length of cable. The peripheral legend, “ATLANTIC • TELEGRAPH • CABLE * 1866 *” The medallists’ mark, “J.S. & A.B. WYON SC.” located beneath the UK motto. SC is an abbreviation for the Latin sculpsit  “he (they) engraved it.”Reverse: The central design on a field of stars has two laurel branches above, the recipients name inscribed in a frame in the center and at the bottom, the symbol with motto for the city of Liverpool. The motto inscribed on ribbon: “DEUS NOBIS HAEC OTIA FECIT.” The central region is surrounded by an unbroken length of cable. The peripheral legend: “PRESENTED BY THE AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE • LIVERPOOL*” The medallists’ mark, “J.S. & A.B. WYON SC.” located beneath the frame. The inscription on the illustrated medal is “TO SIR SAMUEL CANNING.”A first hand examination of the medal shows it to be bronze with a heavy gold plating, gilt, not solid gold. The medal is 76 mm in diameter, which is 3 inches. The edge is plain and the alignment is what is referred to as “medal alignment” in the US, if rotated on 12 to 6 o’clock axis, both the obverse and reverse are upright. The medal weighs 206.8 grams, (7.29 oz avoirdupois, 6.50 oz troy). If the same size medal were of 22k gold it would weigh approximately 432 grams (15.4 oz avoirdupois, 13.9 ounces troy) using relative density of bronze 8600 kg/cubic meter and gold at 19320 kg/cubic meter. There is no apparent correlation of the medal’s weight with the Illustrated London News account, curiously however, the medal with case weighs 12 ounces avoirdupois, which is three quarters of a pound.In addition to the four gold medals recorded in the documentation there is a silvered medal, without engraved name on reverse, possibly a trial strike, in the collection of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich England. The medal is cataloged as number MEC1293 and illustrated on the museum’s Web site. An image of the medal is on the Maritime Museum Web site (accessed 3 April 2013).Catalog CitationsThe medal is mentioned, but not assigned a catalog number in Spink’s Catalog of British Commemorative Medals 1558 to the Present Day with Valuations by Daniel Fearon, 1984. The listed item, #317.3, is a 26 mm bronze medal dated 1866, the subject medal is mentioned under this entry as  “A much larger medal (79 mm) was made by J.S. and A.B. Wyon for presentation by the American Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool.” Laurence Brown lists the medal, without illustration, as catalog number 2867 in his book, “British Historical Medals” volume 2. Known in silver and in bronze, 76 mm. Additionally Brown cites catalog number N/20 in “British and Foreign medals relating to naval and maritime affairs” by the Rht Hon. the Earl of Sandwich, 2nd edition, London, 1950.Acknowledgements: Liverpool Central Library, Youngstown State University Maag Library, Ohio State University Thompson Library, and Bill Burns who provided important information and most of the images in this article.References used, some cited.American Chamber of Commerce Liverpool. Minutes of the American Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool, 1801-1908. Transcription from original courtesy of Liverpool Central Library.Brown, Laurence. A Catalog of British Historical Medals 1837-1901, The Reign of Queen Victoria (Vol. 2). London: B.A. Seaby Ltd, 1987.Burns, Bill. History of the Atlantic Cable & Submarine Telegraphy [online].  Available on internet 3-July-2005: (https://atlantic-cable.com).Fearon, Daniel. Spink’s Catalogue of British Commemorative Medals 1558 to the Present Day with Valuations. Exeter England: Webb & Bower, 1984.Field, Henry M. The Story of the Atlantic Telegraph. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1893.Forrer, Leonard. The Wyons. (Reprinted from the Biographical Dictionary of Medalists, Vol. VI.) London: Spink & Son Ltd, 1917.Gordon, John Steele. A Thread Across the Ocean, The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable. New York: Walker & Company, 2002.Illustrated London News, “Atlantic Telegraph Medal Given by the American Chamber of Commerce at Liverpool.”, Saturday March 30, 1867. No. 1419. – Vol. L.National Maritime Museum, London. “Trade and Empire/ Trading Nations / Steam: A New Era.” The Leviathan. (accessed 1-July-2005).Russell, W. H. The Atlantic Telegraph. London: Day & Son, (1865).Smith, Willoughby. The Rise and Extension of Submarine Telegraphy. London: J.S. Virtue & Co., 1891.

West Cork Wills: Thomas Becher, Sherkin, 1705, Alexander Donovan, Squince, Parish of Myross, Co. Cork, Will Dated 22nd December 1785. Richard Skuse, Derrygarren, Barony of West Carbery, Co. Cork, Farmer, 29th April 1802. Will of Richard Roycroft of Clouney (Clonee, Bog Road), Parish of Durrus, agd 9th May 1801.

From Irish Manuscript Commission Registry of Deeds

Will 3

Thomas Becher,  Sherkin,  Co Cork, Esq.,  21 August 1705.  Proved 11th March 1708.

11 March 1708.  Brothers in Law Henry Turner Richard Turner and John Roberts Trustees and Executors. Wife Elizabeth Becher. Sons Edward and Michael Becher both married. His Henry John and Lionell Becher daughter Susan Becher.   Kinsman Francis Becher Tallough (Tallow)  Co Waterford Clerk.    Legacy to Parish of Ballymodan (Bandon)

Ardtentane, Cahiroleckeny, Ratooragh, Gortloen, Banratonacane, Kiltomane, Mauladinny and Coomfarna in parish of Schull.   Ballyrisode, Dunkilly,  Callirisoughtra,  Baltenoughtra,  Kilbean, Lynane,  Cahir, Quorisk,  Co Cork.   Baneaknockakane and Quolaigh,  Parish of Schull, Co. Cork.  Old Court,  Kilfenan, Glaunaroura.   Leasehold lands of Aghadowne, Kilkilleene, Callitrumore, Callitrumbegg, Drumnacahara, Lysheenoughra,  Kilmoonagh,  Cluddagh,  Smorane, Quoecurine, Rinedolane, Gortnaclough, Skibbereene alias New-Stapletown, Coronra, All in Co Cork

Witness: Dive Downes (Son-in-Law)

Lord Bishop of Cork and Ross.    Robert Conrad, Kinsale, Co. Cork, Esq.   Benjamin Weekes, Cok, Notary Public, James Russell servant to Bishop of Cork. 

Memorial witnessed by John Connell P.G.P. Skyaner

1 456, 356.                                                                            John Roberts seal

Will 238

Alexander Donovan, Squince, Parish of Myross, Co. Cork, Will Dated 22nd December 1785, Memorial Sworn at Skibbereen 29th May 1800.

To his son Doctor James Donovan, Doctor of Physic, his interest in lands at Rinogreny, Keamore, Saravelly, Co. Cork, to his son Alexander Donovan his interest in the farm at Myross with all the utensils belonging to the fisheries, salt house, and large boat subject to the head rent and lands at Manhelare and Cusronan , Filmuck, and Carhngariff (Cahhugariff), Co. Cork,  Executors his sons James and Alexander.  Witnesses Daniel Collins, now Skibbereen, Doctor of Physic, John Wright, Glandore, Merchant, Richard Donovan recently deceased (1800), Warrensbrook.

Witnesses to Memorial (1800), Daniel Collins, Richard Tomkins, Gent.

Registry of Deeds References

518, 427, 345908

Will 267

Richard Skuse, Derrygarren, Barony of West Carbery, Co. Cork, Farmer, 29th April 1802, Sworn 1st May 1802.

To Michael Albridge (wrong should be Attridge), of Skibbereen, Co. Cork, Woollen Draper, and Jno (John?), Glasheen …Aulin?, Cork City, …..Allen  said County farmer, all his interest in lands at Derrygarren and Ininshbeg (Inishbeg) both in Co. Cork, … held under Head Lease from Cornelius O’Driscoll, Esq. and the latter under Thomas Somerville and Burris Erwin, Esqs., in trust  to pay Testator’s wife Mary Skuse, an annuity of £10 residue of profits from said lands to raise a payment of £40 each to the Testator’s seven daughters, Dorothy, Abigail, Elizabeth, Margaret, Mary, Ann, Frances, and then to pay the profits to Testator’s son Francis Skuse for life, in default of his  issue to said  seven daughters.

 Dwelling house at Derrygarren, furniture to the said wife for life, then the furniture divided between the three youngest daughters Mary, Ann and Frances

Executors: Thomas Somerville, Michael Attridge, Jno Attridge.

Witnesses: Richard Sinnick, Gent. Denis Donoghue servant to said John Denis. John Denis Gent.

Witnesses to Memorial Richard Sinnick, John Denis Gent.

Registry of Deeds Reference 551   395  363727

Welply’s Wills

Copy of Will of Richard Roycroft of Clouney (Clonee, Bog Road), Parish of Durrus, agd 9th May 1801, Proved 1st August 1801, Son-in-law, George Swanton, Grandson Richard Lavers (Levis), granddaughter,  Avis Notter, son Thomas Roycroft deceased, daughter Grace O’Sullivan.   Executors George Swanton, Richard Lavers (Levis).   Witnesses:  Robert Lavers. Charles Dalton, John Vickery.

Winispeare and Associated Families in West Cork from 1640s

This Is an attempt to try and throw some light on early settlers to the Bantry area post 1600 probably involved in the maritime trade.

Bantry historian Colum Hourihan shows the early settlement at Blackrock, a timber settlement  some area to the west of Bantry House. It is likely some of the early English settlers lived there but now there is  no trace.


The first mention is of John Winispear around 1648 petitioning the authorities in London concerning the utilisation of local timber.

From the scraps that have survived there are Winspear marriages to the Notter (of German Protestanat Palatine origin, Crookhaven), Jermyn probably Mizen, Raddy (Scart outside Bantry) O’Sullivan probably Bears but in some associated deeds there are Kenmare O’Sullivans, possibly Trenwiths of Beara.

It is also possible that associated families such as Attridge, McCarthy, Hungerford,Toye and Hegarty might be connected.

Into the general mix are people like Beversham Harman, a middle man on the Lord Kenmare, Beara Estate

The Winispears are in Rossmore in Durrus in the 1730s a major centre in the pilchard industry. In various deed concerning the general area and the names of Cork merchants, Coppinger, Meade, Wouilfe,  who would have an involvement in the industry until its sudden collapse. The Beazleys Cooper also feature.

Given the general background of the associated families you can almost get the tang of the sea.

If the 8.5 million Land Commission document stored in a warehouse in Portlaoise ever sees the light of day pre 1700 deeds might clarify the situation.

As DNA testing becomes more widespread it might throw up more genetic links. So far it seems that a large cohort of the population of West Cork and theru worldwide descendants have a far more mixed background then  was supposed to recently.


Petition from John Winspeare, c 1648, Shipwright, living near Bantry Bay, West Cork, Timber for Staves, Propositions for Felling.

SP 46/130/70


Petition from John Winspeare to [?]. Writer, a shipwright living near Bantry Bay, co. Cork, now makes his livelihood `upon the fishing trade’. He has found in neighbouring woods much `knee timber, standards and ripe staves’ which would be useful for shipbuilding. He asks `your worships’ for permission to fell timber, and to build `any lighter or boats for the carriage’ to the eventual port for transportation [? to England], and gives details of suggested payment for himself for delivering the timber, prepared for use, `on board in the river of Kilmarr [? Kenmare] in Bantry Bay’; he also calculates freight charges. Endorsed (different hand): `John Winspeare his proposition touching felling, squaring etc. of timber and of woods in Ireland’.

1928.   Busy Bees Barred at Crookhaven But they Buzz Boisterously at Skibbereen Court. Jurisprudence of Bees in Crookhaven, Bees are Animals. Bees when Burned Evaporate.  Music Hath Charms to Soothe The Savage Bee. You Can’t Bring  The IRA Now!’  A Swarm of Bees in May is Worth a Load of Hay, in June A Silver Spoon, July not Worth a Butterfly.

1928.   Busy Bees Barred at Crookhaven But they Buzz Boisterously at Skibbereen Court. Jurisprudence of Bees in Crookhaven, Bees are Animals. Bees when Burned Evaporate.  Music Hath Charms to Soothe The Savage Bee. You Can’t Bring  The IRA Now!’  A Swarm of Bees in May is Worth a Load of Hay, in June A Silver Spoon, July not Worth a Butterfly.

Apart From the quarrelling neighbours the solicitors were Jasper Wolfe, still alive in West Cork folklore for his wit. One time Crown Prosecutor for West Cork later Independent TD and President of the incorporated Law Society.

The Other solicitor Thomas Healy, state solicitor for West Cork

1884, 1917 Jasper Travers Wolfe Solicitor, Crown Solicitor, TD “Norton, Skibbereen, 1st place Law Society Final Exam, Director Skibbereen Eagle member Governing Body, UCC.  subscriber Zenith Marine Disaster, Baltimore, 1895.  1895 Funeral and wreath of Bantry Solicitor  Daniel O’Donovan aged 26.  Native Skibbereen:Returning officer west Cork constituency election agent James Gilhooley MP.  1906 consortium Richard Wheeler Doherty, Solicitor, Bandon, John Walsh, businessman, director Allmans Distillery, Bandon, Hugo Flinn, Fish buyer, Cork, Jasper Travers Woulfe, solicitor, Skibbereen, took over Skibbereen Eagle on death of previous owner. 1909 attending the funeral of Dr. William Jennings, J.P.   1914 RDC election nominated by Parish Priest Fr..Michael O’Callaghan.  1935 funeral of Dr.Edward Shipsey, Schull.  1937 attending Ned Roycroft, funeral. Roycroft had nominated him and supported him as TD,



” “M Minnie, elder d of George George  Levis Vickery, 2 daughters, grandson wrote a biography.  Funeral attending 1920 Edward Edgerton Leigh White, died age 44  Bantry House.  Fled to England after IRA threats, April 1922 returned months later.  Later received £3,000 from a claim of £7,670 for injury to his business and loss of income from the loss of his office for IGC.  Letter to Eoin O’Mahony from Jasper Travers Wolfe, solicitor, Skibbereen, Co. Cork, regarding the Dail motion to remove Judge Edward McElligott from office, 1941 May 5.  1932, attending funeral of Michael Harrington, Merchant, Skibbereen 

” “Jasper Travers Wolfe was born in 1872, the third of nine children of William John Wolfe, a Methodist shopkeeper and his wife Rachel Wood.

He was educated at the Bishop’s School, Skibbereen and passed the Law Society preliminary exam in 1888. Indentured in the practice of Thomas Downes, he obtained first place in his final exams, was awarded a gold medal and the Findlater Scholarship and admitted as a solicitor in 1893.

His father died in 1894 after a long illness and Jasper established J. Travers Wolfe & Co. shortly after, quickly establishing himself as an expert in land law.

 ” 1915, attending funeral of Patrick J. Hurley, solicitor, Drimoleague.  1939 Funeral   of Dr. John G. Cullinane, Clonakilty.  1935 funeral Bantry Charles Swaine, merchant director Biggs and Co.  1938, attending Funeral of Father John Sheehy, (1892-1938), Curate. Courtmacsherry, of the Prominent Skibbereen Family, his Father County Councillor, One Time TD, Mass Celebrated by 100 Priests, Telegrams, Mass Cards.

1896-, 1935, 1937,  1938,  1941,  1942, 1952, 1953        Thomas Healy (J.J.Healy and Co)        State Solicitor, admitted 1919 apprenticed to father late Joseph J.Healy and Richard Moloney. Cork West.   State Solicitor        1938 Funeral of Edwin Angus Swanton, Major Draper, Skibbereen.    1938, attending  Funeral of Father John Sheehy, (1892-1938), Curate. Courtmacsherry, of the Prominent Skibbereen Family, his Father County Councillor, One Time TD, Mass Celebrated by 100 Priests, Telegrams, Mass Cards.  Attending funeral of  1942        Dr. Collins        Leap        1942, James Duggan, P.C., U.C.CJudge in Sinn Féin Superior Court, Managing Director, Southern Star, Election Committee Michael Collins                        “Thoms Directory. 1934 appointed solicitors for labourers cottage scheme Skibbereen/Schull.  Thomas Healy        Solicitor, Skibbereen                        Drinagh Slate Quarries Company Ltd. Incorporated 1936                ”        1939 Funeral   of Dr. John G. Cullinane, Clonakilty  Sympathy funeral of 1941, Mrs. Ellen Hegarty, Castlehaven Attending funeral of Jasper Travers Wolfe , solicitor, Skibbereen, 1952.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       


1952, Enormous Funeral, Skibbereen Closes Down, of Jasper Travers Wolfe, Born 1872, Solicitor, Crown Prosecutor West Cork, Three Times Elected TD, ‘He Had all of Munster as His Client’, First Corkman to be President Incorporated Law Society.


James Gilhooley (1847-1916), Fenian 1867, Irish Parliamentary Party MP, Justice of the Peace, West Cork, Member ‘Bantry Band’, children at Four Mile Water (Durrus) National School. In later years his election agent was Jasper Woulfe, Solicitor, Crown Prosecutor and later TD, Skibbereen.

Photograph of Directors and Managers of Schull and Skibbereen Light Railway 1910-20, including Ned Roycroft, Mount Gabriel, Chairman Cork County Council, Jasper Travers Wolfe Solicitor (former Crown Prosecutor West Cork and later TD) and his father Eddie

1882. Death bed Conversion of John Bansfield, (Jonas Bamfield, teacher from Schull?) Protestant Pauper in Skibbereen. Amusing Scenes at Funeral Two Coffins Furnished.

Re Protestant paupers, in the 1820s when Sir Richard Griffith was building the road from Skibberen to Crookhaven he said it was the only area in Ireland apart from the Northern counties where he employed a significant number of poor Protestants.


Death bed Conversion of John Bansfield, (Jonas Bamfield, teacher from Schull?) Protestant Pauper in Skibbereen. Amusing Scenes at Funeral Two Coffins Furnished.


Blacksmiths Durrus, Kilcrohane, Schull and Tumbarumba, New South Wales

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It is difficult to imagine now but even 50 years ago horse usage was of particular importance in the western parts of West Cork.  The tractor did not really take over until the late 1960s.  With horses come blacksmiths.

To give an idea of their importance,  the 1901 census records 675 blacksmiths in Co. Cork with 875 in 1911.  Not all were conventional blacksmiths, in Kilcrohane RIC Barracks one of the Constables born in Co. Kerry had been a blacksmith prior to joining.  Likewise among the British Forces of Occupation quite a number were blacksmiths prior to enlistment.  The Mines also had blacksmiths.  A Norman Locke born in Scotland was a blacksmith in one of the local Bantry barytes mines.

O’Mahony, Kilcrohane:

Jimmy Coakley  of Tureen had the tradition that Black Jack O’Mahony  started out collecting urine in tubs in connection in the early 19th century with the local weaving industry.  There is a suggestion that this branch of the O’Mahony family migrated from Leamcon in Schull around the 1790s with their father Tim, a  blacksmith.  

At the Bantry Quarter Sessions in July 1881, Mr Ferguson Q.C. referring to the system of boycotting and the scenes in West Cork that had paralysed trade and injured the prosperity of the district, there were only two trivial cases before the court.  Durrus parish featured in a newspaper report of two incidents one in Dromreagh, where a farmer had his windows broken as he settled with his landlord after he had been ‘processed’ for arrears; in Kilcrohane the forge was set on fire as the smith had served farmers who had been boycotted.  The article stated that there had been a number of such incidents in Durrus in the previous months and it was getting an unenviable reputation, and the police were considering erecting iron shreds to protest property.  These were temporary police stations erected in areas of outrages.

Anvil used by John O’Sullivan (Tadys) 1812-1898, Ballybrack and Gunpoint, Schull. West Cork.




Local Loan Records 1830-50 Durrus

​​Borrower:  Michel Stanley 

Sureties:  Laurence  Leyhane Carrigboy John Mahony Ahagouna crossed out Carrigboy)

A poor blacksmith 1853 in America


Borrower:  John Murphy

Sureties:  William Pattison Moulamill and Frank Hunt Droumreagh

A poor blacksmith 1853


Monster Meeting Curragh Hill, Skibbereen 

Daniel O’Connell presided at a monster meeting in July 1842 attended by an enormous crowd from all districts of West Cork.  Estimates range to a few hundred thousandPrior to the meeting he lodged with Fr. Doheny P.P. Dunmanway, and travelled with him by coach and four.  As they approached Skibbereen they were met by a procession made up of bakers, blacksmiths, shoemakers, tailors and weavers preceded by a band.


​​Elihu Burritt (1810-1879), ‘The Learned Blacksmith’, of Boston, USA, Visit to Skibbereen, West Cork, 1847 to ‘Fathom The Cause of Extent and Cure of Ireland’s Misery, his Pamphlet ‘Four Months in Skibbereen’ raised $100,000 for Famine Relief and his Project the Jamestown Relief Effort.

23 Sept 1873 Boston

Mary Dukelow 23 1855-to Robert Manders b. Durrus 23 Blacksmith 1850-1938 Her parents James Peter 1798-1876 Mary Baker 1819-1911  his James Mary all parties born in Ireland

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