1902 Gurteen and Ardyhoulihane (Durrus Cross), Bantry Land Sale. Title, Map
1902 Gurteen and Ardyhoulihane (Durrus Cross), Bantry Land Sale. Title, Map
Of around 415 listed here, in the first instalment there are about 150 where details of the individuals are given. Where they are from a landed background detail of how the estate came about are given with some genealogical information. This relies heavily on earlier work in The Magistrates of Cork and The Cork Grand Jury. At the culmination of this process it is intended to list those indicating those who assisted together with institutions and sources.
Of approximately 415 of those listed, including 15 Lords, Bishops, 80 are Magistrates, 32 Clergy of the Church of Ireland excluding Bishops who are at the top table with the Nobles. Also 6 of a medical background, 4 legals.
Descendants of Richard Boyle the Great Earl of Cork and associated families are strongly represented by the Brodricks of Midleton, Cotters, Roches, Shannons, and a significant number from around Youghal.
A lot of the arcane offices represented:
Sovereigns, Charleville, Kinsale
These offices were a legacy of the English conquest and land confiscations and plantations post unsuccessful ‘rebellions’. The bulk of these offices were swept aside in the local government reforms of the 19th century culminating in the establishment of Cork County Council and Cork Corporation in 1899.
Church of Ireland
Until 1869 the Church of Ireland was Ireland State Church although in 1800 it only represented about 12% of the population. Apart from religion it performed important civic functions now done by public bodies or voluntary organisations. Included here are probate, the regulation of marriage, education and at local level through the select vestries, road maintenance, elements of taxation, care of foundlings, burial of indigent dead, and in the time of the French Invasion the imposition of local levies for the militia or compensation raised locally in lieu. Senior clergy were habitually appointed as Magistrates and administered what at the time passed for justice with fellow magistrates mostly local landlords.
Not the case here but some Bishops sat in the Irish House of Lords. Here we have a multiplicity of Bishops, Deans, Vicar General Rectors, Clerks.
East India Company Money
Among the families who benefited are:
Leslie Cork and Courtmacsherry
Somerville, Union Hall
There are many here with names of Gaelic or Norman origin, members of the Church of Ireland whose ancestors had to convert because of the Penal Laws. The Convert Rolls list over 50,000. This involved the public humiliation of appearing in public in a Church of Ireland Church and public renouncing the ‘Errors of Rome’
One family appearing and whose ancestors appear elsewhere are the Coughlans of Carrigmanus on the Mizen peninsula. They fell out with their overlords the O’Mahony family about 1600 fell in with Richard Boyle (The Great Earl of Cork) and the Hulls and converted to the Church of Ireland . They are ancestors to Princes Harry and William of England, their mother Lady Dianna Spencer’s grandmother Lady Fermoy (Roche) had Coughlan ancestry.
Among the names are the De la Cours, quite a number of families such as the Evansons of Durrus have spouses from a Huguenot family background.
The list is headed by the leading Lords in the County although Bantry was probably only entailed after 1800. The same pattern for Kerry The civil Lords sat in the Irish House of Lords.
4th Viscount Midleton:
Family fortune based on agency to Devonshire estate founded by Richard Boyle, Great Earl of Cork.
George Brodrick, 4th Viscount Midleton (1 November 1754 – 12 August 1836) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1774 to 1796, when he was raised to the peerage of Great Britain as Baron Brodrick.
Portrait, aged 12
The various obituaries refer to his tenure as a Judge in complementary fashion, Like many before him he discarded his sectarian and Orange baggage on entering the 4 Courts as a newly appointed Irish Judge in 1842 and in the long tradition of Irish Judges gave a fair and impartial hearing to those who appeared before him. It would seem that in the criminal cases he was lenient in sentencing.
The 1835 Banadon election is noteworthy for the tiny size of the electorate. He won He fought the 1835 election for Bandon bridge perceived as the nominee of the Orange faction getting 111 votes against James Redmond Barry, the Liberal who got 79
Kildare Place Society, p.2
Chairman of Co. Derry, p.11
Daniel O’Connell’s apprehensions, p.13
Conservative speech at Bandon, p. 14
James Redmond Barry, opponent at 1835 Bandonbridge election, p.23
Levee for Protestant Clergy, Bandon, p.27
Anti Jackson pamphlet, p.29
Support for the National Agricultural Movement, p.29
Appointment as Judge of Common Pleas. p.30
Support for Rev. Fisher’s proselytising mission at Altar, Mizen and other subscribers, p.32
Possible Quaker ancestry, p. 32
Memorials of deeds involving his father, p.46
Obituaries, p. 51
Joseph Devonsher Jackson Esq, MP, Sergeant at Law, etc (engraving) by English School, (19th century); Private Collection; (add.info.: Joseph Devonsher Jackson Esq, MP, Sergeant at Law, etc. Illustration for Ryalls Portraits of Eminent Conservative Statesmen (James Fraser, c 1830s).
Trinity College Dublin:
JACKSON Joseph Devonsher 1800 17 Strettell Portitor Co. Cork Irish Bar 1806;PC; Judge of Common Pleas (I)
Kings Inns Admission Papers:
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: THE KILDARE PLACE SOCIETY
The Society for the Promotion of the Education of the Poor in Ireland, more famously known as the Kildare Place Society, was established in 1811 by a group of Philanthropic men such as Samuel Bewley, J.D La Touche, William L Guinness and Joseph Devonsher. This society was set up as a non- denominational society however; its rules stated that the bible would be read in schools ‘without note or comment’. This rule caused outrage from the Catholic Church authorities and proved to be an unacceptable rule as Catholic children began to be withdrawn from the schools.
Presumably this should be Joseph Devonsher Jackson.
1826 From Chief Secretaries Letters:
|TITLE:||File of letters from Joseph Devonsher Jackson, Secretary [to Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor of Ireland], Kildare Place, Dublin, concerning diminished government funding of the society|
|SCOPE & CONTENT:||Letters from Joseph Devonsher Jackson, Secretary [to Society for promoting the education of the poor of Ireland], Kildare Place, Dublin, to Henry Goulburn, Chief Secretary, soliciting further parliamentary grants for the [Kildare Place Society] and noting that any curtailment of funding will be attended with great prejudice to the cause of education in Ireland. Adding that they have reluctantly agreed not to provide funding towards the establishment of new schools and to limit funding to existing schools. Also copy of letter from Jackson, to William Gregory, Under Secretary, stating that the committee have agreed to abstain from making grants from its funds in support of schools in connection with other societies.|
|EXTENT:||5 items; 15pp|
|DATE(S):||2 Jun 1825-2 Jul 1825|
James Redmond Barry,(1790 -1879), Pre 1820, Glandore and 11 Great Denmark St., Dublin, Fishery Commissioner advocate of fishery development in West Cork, Improving Landlord, Petitioned House of Lords to Vote 1821 as Representative of dormant title of Viscount Buttevant from 1405. 1818 encouraging Flax growing with mother’s assistance, mentions his farm of around 300 acres population 328 of whom one third at linen. 1821 request to Chief Secretary with Rev. Armiger Sealy, John Swete, Thomas Walker that military be sent to Timoleague re Captain Rock disturbances. 1822 Cork Trustee for The Encouraging Industry in Ireland. 1828 Quarter Session Bandon. 1828 seeking reform of the House of Commons. 1832 cholera. Involved with Richard Townsend, and Thomas Somerville, Drishane in setting up Agricultural and Country Bank in Skibbereen, April 1835. Subscriber Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Ireland 1837. Attended Reformers Dinner Bandon 1839 for Daniel O’Connell, MP,. Attending Famine Relief Meeting Dunmanway 1846. Subscriber at Dublin 1861 Rev. Gibson’s History of Cork. In October 1861 at O’Donovan’s Cove married Anne Mary J 3rd daughter of Timothy J.P. to David Fitzjames Barry, 2nd son to Redmond Barry, Commissioner of Fisheries Esq. (and a political ally of Timothy). She is later Executrix of her father’s estate then a widow. Listed 1870, Dublin, 439 acres. Member election committee McCarthy Downing, Skibbereen, 1868. Son Captain FitzJames Barry, J.P., grandson Richard Fitzwilliam Barry, J.P., solicitor, Clerk of the Crown, King’s Co., listed 1885-6. Left £1,500. Subscriber memorial John O’Hea J.P., Clonakilty, 1847. Member as James, Bandon, Commission on Magistrates 1838. attended Reformers Dinner, Bandon, 1839 for Daniel O’Connell, MP. Petition 1840 on Catholic Equality. Invitation by Henry Townsend DL, 1839, on behalf of The Reformers of the West Riding of Cork to Daniel O’Connell MP to Dinner in Bandon, Co Cork, with 200 Liberals in attendance including, Francis Bernard Beamish MP (1802-1868), Rickard Deasy (1766-1852) Brewer Clonakilty, James Clugston Allman Distiller Bandon, James Redmond Barry J.P., Commissioner for Fisheries, Edward O’Brien, Masonic Lodge Bandon, John Hurley Brewer, Major E. Broderick, Henry Owen Beecher Townsend (1775-1847), Major Mathew Scott J.P. (1779-1844), Philip Harding, Carrigafooka, Macroom, Richard Dowden (1794-1861) Unitarian, Frances Coppinger Esq., Parkview, Bandon. 1858 member Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society.
His opponent in the 1835 Bandon Election66
Courtesy Leap Village:
The Famine struck in 1845 and West Cork was one of the worst affected parts of Ireland, especially Skibbereen and the Mizen Peninsula. One would think that the people living near the coast would be better provided for to meet the ravages of hunger than the inlands parts. However, the fishermen were not sufficiently geared to meet the crisis. It is said that the first death from starvation in West Cork was a fisherman from South reen in Myross. The parish priest of the united parishes of Kilmacabea and Kilfaughnabeg, Fr. Joseph Sheahan wrote many letters to the newspaper during the Famine years, drawing attention to the plight of the people. Fourteen parishioners were waked in the parish on Christmas night, 1846. In a letter published in the Cork Examiner on December, 19th, 1846, Fr. Sheahan wrote that Kilmacabea had no resident landlord and that those in Kilfaughnabeg were “so few, or so incompetent, as to be of no avail. There is one exception, the benevolent family of James Redmond Barry, who are using every possible means which human effort could devise to administer to their distressed and starving fellow creatures”. Over one hundred were given relief every day at Glandore House, whether they belonged to his estate or not. Barry established a soup kitchen in Glandore. In September, 1846, 2500 pounds had been voted for relief work for Kilmacabea which would give employment. The men employed on the making of the roads were too weak for the back-breaking work. Some of them haven’t eaten for several days. The coastal road from Glandore to Leap was the most important project undertaken. It must have been very difficult to construct, most of it quarried out of the rock. Although Fr. Sheahan praised Barry for his efforts to help the needy, the curate, Fr. Walsh, accused Barry of paying very low wages (sixpence per day). In February 1847, H.M.S. Tantarus visited several ports in West Cork, calling first to Glandore. Barry gave an account of conditions in the Glandore area, which was published in the Cork Constitution of 11th March, 1847. “Six months ago the place had 2500 inhabitants; now all have died or run away [emigrated]. Fever, dysentery and starvation stare you everywhere … children of nine or ten years old mistaken for decrepit old women”. In the decade of 1841 – 1851, the population of Glandore town fell from 402 to 131 (70% decrease); Rushanes from 265 to 126 (53% decrease); Gortyowen fell from 54 to 8; Carriglusky 51 to 23. In the Famine years wretched life and hunger came which broke the people’s strenght and spirit. There was nothing to do but to try to stay alive. All fellow feeling was lost. All sport and merriment disappeared. Poetry and singing and dancing were no more. An ancient culture was lost and forgotten and when things improved in other ways, it never came back as it had been. The famine killed everything. In 1847 Ireland was predominantly Irish-speaking outside the cities. Her people were a virile folk, big of body and spirit, exuberant in manner. Their life with their boisterous fairs, the fireside seanchaí, the country dance, the flowing wit and ready song, has lingered in the Gaeltacht up to now. But the Gaeltacht, which covered most of the country side on the Faimne’s eve, shrunk rapidly and a new puritanical, dourer Ireland emerged.
In his book ‘Leap and Glandore; Fact and Folklore’, author Eugene Daly considers James Redmond Barry to be one of the most prominent figures in Glandore’s history.
The philanthropic landlord arrived in the area in 1824, and had the foresight and financial means to build the 136ft long pier in the town, in a bid to develop the local fishing industry.
He also built a hotel and school in Glandore. Unfortunately, all of his efforts to grow the local economy ended up in smoke when the famine hit. West Cork was so badly affected by the famine, that it lost 45pc of its population.
Earls of Bandon/Lord Bandon
Francis Bernard, 1st Earl of Bandon (1755-1830), 1772, Castle Bernard, Bandon, only son James Bernard and Esther Smith d Percy Smith. M Lady Catherine Henrietta Boyle d Richard, 2nd Earl of Shannon. MP Ennis 1778-83, Delegate 1783 to Irish Volunteer convention. Subscriber, James Mullalla, Review of Irish Affairs 1688-1795. She arranged for donation of site for Gallows Hill catholic Church in thanks for Fr. Shinnick curing her son later 2nd Earl quested to be president of Bandon Brunswick Constitutional Club 1828 donated £50. Non marital children. Bandonbridge in the Irish Parliament until 1790. Lady Charlotte Bernard, 2nd daughter married 3rd Viscount Doneraile. Freeman of Cork 1777. 1805 Return by Commissioners Appointed under Act 40, George 111, cap.34, King of England Compensation for Abolition of Pocket and Rotten Boroughs. 1819 Member of the Association Incorporated for Discontinuancy Vice and Promoting the Knowledge and Practise of The Christian Religion. Rathcormac, Francis Earl of Bandon, Sampson Stawell (Kinsale) Viscount Doneraile, Trustees in will of Lord Riversdale, 1787, (Hull, Schull family), £15,000/£17.3 Million. Glowing obituary to him as a resident Landlord
Right Honourable Honourable James 2nd Earl of Bandon, Custos Rotorum, (1785-1856), Castlebernard, FRANCIS (1st EARL of BANDON) and HARRIET (Boyle) had James (heir and 2nd Earl born 14th June 1785 in Bandon and died 31st October 1856 at Castle Bernard) m 13th March, 1809 in Cashel Mary Susan Brodrick eldest daughter of Charles, Archbishop of Cashel and sister of Charles, 6th Viscount Midleton. Mary was born 9th October 1787 and died 23rd April 1870, buried in Bandon. Due to rising war related prices land rents estimated 1811 at £30,000. Succeeded to title and estate after his father’s death in 1830. Following a large Protestant meeting 1834 at Castlebenard nominated to prepare a petition to the British King and Parliament with the Rev. Somers Payne, Councillor Mannix, Lords Berehaven and Bandon. Subscriber Lewis Richard Dowden papers: 1837. 1842 Subscriber Jacksons Co. and City Directory. 1844 Printed handbill/notice , ‘Cork Art Union for the promotion of the fine arts in the South of Ireland’, annual subscription appeal. President is Lord Viscount Bernard MP (Lord Bandon). Printed by W Scraggs, 102 Patricks Street. (1p) Subscriber John Ryan, 1845 ’20 Years of Popish Persecution’. Made huge efforts during the Famine to secure relief. Co. Grand Master Orange Order. Fellow Royal Society 1845. Member Commission on Magistrates 1838 subscriber, 2 copies, 1861 to Smith’s History of Cork. Bandon 1869.
Right Honourable Francis Bernard, 3rd Earl of Bandon, Eton, M.A., D.C.L, Oxford (1817-1877), Castlebernard, son Francis 2nd Earl of Bandon (1755-1830) and Mary Susan Albina Brodrick. MP Bandon 1831. Chairing Famine Relief Meeting Dunmanway 1846. 1857 member Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Member Irish Society Antiquaries 1861. Colonel Royal Cork Artillery Militia. Subscriber 1861 Rev. Gibson’s History of Cork. Promoter flax growing West Cork 1850s. Promoting mineral development in West Cork including barytes mines on his Dereenlomane property, Ballydehob. 1870 appointed Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotorum of Cork County. His obituary noted that despite his extreme political religious views he was allegedly held in high esteem by all classes. After his funeral a meeting of his tenant was held at the Devonshire Arms Hotel, in Bandon and he and his father were praised for their treatment of tenants honouring leases unlike other local landlords through theri agent his uncle Colonel Bernard for 40 years. . Frequently sitting in Bandon Petty Session Court which adjourned for a week on his death. His funeral to family crypt Ballymodan attended by Royal Cork Artillery Militia, South Cork Infantry Militia. As a consequence of his death the following meets were cancelled, Viscount Doneraile Hounds, Castlefreke Hounds, Castlemore Hounds, Upton Harriers, South Union Fox Hounds. Probate 1877, executor James Francis Bernard, 4th Earl £18,000
Right. Hon. James Francis 4th Earl of Bandon (1850-1924) , (see also Bernard) K.P., 1871, Castlebernard, Bandon. Registered Vestryman of Christ Church, Kilmeen, 1870. 1903, Sale. Lord Bandon gives notice of his intention to sell his estates in Co Cork – extensive holdings with some 15,000 tenants. 1874-1877 on the staff of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Abercorn. Chairman Irish Landowners Association 1910 Listed 1913, listed 1922. 1888. Landlords, Lord Bandon, Duke of Devonshire, Lord Bandon owns 40,941 acres in Co Cork, Duke of Devonshire has 32,550 acres. Eviction of some Bantry tenants 1880s, somewhat surprising as the Earl of Bandon were of the better class of Landlord. Two of the three largest landowners in the Co. His 41,000 acres were sold post 1903 to the Land Commission on what was regarded as fair terms. At the time 15,000 tenants. It is likely that his Land Agents the Dohertys Bandon Solicitors received a considerable amount of the proceeds as they had advanced multiple mortgages to Lord Bandon over the years. 1877 appointed Lord Lieutenant for Co. Cork, a position held by his father and grandfather. Married Georgina Dorothy Evans Freke d 7th Lord Carbery and wife Harriet Shouldham, the Dunmanway Shouldhams are descended in the female line from a McCarthy heiress who converted. 1883 President Cork Industrial Exhibition and in 1902-3 patron of Cork Industrial Exhibition. 1900 Knight of St. Patrick. Chairman Bandon Board of Guardians and Bandon Town Commissioners. 1919 elected President of a group proposing a War Monument for Cork. Castlemahon was burned by IRA and kidnapped in 1921. Compensation paid by the Irish Government as follows for the house £37,000, furniture £43,300. Francis Bernard, great-grandfather of the first Earl, was a lawyer and politician while Francis’ younger brother Arthur is the 7th-great grandfather of Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada. James Bernard, father of the first Earl, was a politician. He died at Princes Gardens London. His funeral service in London was attended by officers of the Cork Artillery.
The family seat, Castle Bernard, built on ruins of former O’Mahony Castle, was one of the great houses burned during the troubles by the IRA under Sean Hales on 21 June 1921. The home was burned as a counter-reprisal measure against British policy of burning the homes of suspected Irish republicans.
Lord Bandon was kidnapped and held hostage for three weeks being released on 12 July. The IRA threatened to have him executed if the British went ahead with executing IRA prisoners. During his captivity, Bandon reportedly coolly played cards with his captors, who seem to have treated him fairly well. Reportedly, Lord Bandon would give one of his captors, Daniel (Dan) O’Leary (also known an Leabhair, Irish for ‘Book’, based on the fact he was so well read), money each day for Leabhair to travel from the house in Kilcolman townland, to Slatterys pub in Ahiohill to purchase Clonakilty Wrastler (a local beer).
Unlike other West Cork estates that were founded on forfeiture of the former owners for ‘Rebellion” the Bandon Estate was largely assembled by the legal fees generated by Francis Bernard, Bandon born Dublin Barrister and later judge.
In 1877 the Cork Examiner in a comment piece referred to the families public spirited nature in promoting native industries, n being a Landlord family who lived locally. However it mentions that the reputation was blighted by a deep sectarian streak and a hostility to the Catholic religion that of the majority of the Irish population. The Earl and his wife were deeply involved in Protestant evangelicals and proselytization including support in the case of the Earl of the REv. Fisher mission at Teampall n mBocht in the Mizzen Peninsula
Despite its ruinous condition, this imposing castellated country house has retained its historic form and a great deal of its fabric. Built in the Classical style in the final years of the eighteenth century for Francis Bernard, the first earl of Bandon, it was remodelled and extended in the nineteenth century in the Gothic Revival style. The main block displays classically inspired proportions, breakfronts and bowed rear bay, while the later battlemented stone parapet walls, turrets, bartizans, balistrariae, arrow-loops and panel-tracery mask its regular classical character. The attached ruined medieval tower house of the O’Mahoney clan which was acquired by the family in early seventeenth century adds archaeological interest. Burnt as a symbol of British occupation in 1921, the house and its related buildings remain a spectacular addition to the architectural heritage and are a reminder of the wealth and prosperity of the demesne in the past.
Around 1971 Paddy Madden the Cork County Librarian acquired the papers of the Bandon Estate which are now in the Cork Archives, largely uncatalogued: https://corkarchives.ie/
According to Burke, the first Francis Bernard settled in Ireland around the time of Elizabeth I. In 1703 Francis Bernard purchased parts of the Earl of Clancarty estate in the barony of Muskerry, including Ballytrasna. A descendent, also Francis Bernard, was created Viscount Bernard and Earl of Bandon in 1800. The Earl of Bandon’s estate in county Cork amounted to almost 41,000 acres in the 1870s. At the time of Griffith’s Valuation, the estate was among the principal lessors in the parishes of Skull, barony of West Carbery, Ballinadee, Ballymoney, Desertserges, Kilmaloda, Kinneigh, barony of East Carbery, Ardfield, Castleventry, Kilkerranmore, Kilmeen, Lislee and Ross, barony of Ibane and Barryroe, Liscarroll and Buttevant, barony of Orrery, Kilmore, Knockavilly, barony of Kinalea, Athnowen, barony of East Muskerry, Caherlag, Carrigtohill, barony of Barrymore and Ballymodan, barony of Kinalmeaky. A Colonel Bernard, resident in India, was the owner of over 900 acres in county Waterford in the 1870s. The Waterford estate derives from Anne Bernard, who married Robert Foulkes of Youghal in the eighteenth century but bequeathed her estate to her nephew, Stephen Bernard. Sadleir, referring to the 1770s, mentions “Barnard of Prospect Hall, lives mostly in London” and notes that Stephen Bernard was MP for Bandon, 1727-1757.
Bandon Estate Rental Records, Durrus area 1854