DECREE The Society named the MAYNOOTH MISSION TO CHINA was recently set up in Ireland to spread the Faith among pagans, especially the Chinese. The Holy See was consulted beforehand and the Irish Bishops gave their approval. A little later the founders established a new College with an oratory named St Columban’s College at Dalgan, Shrule as the seat of the Society in this diocese. They did so with permission given under certain conditions for a year by our decree of 29/11/1917. Based on many indications, especially the very purpose of the society, the character of the founders, and the truly marvellous zeal of the whole of Ireland for this project, we may hope with the greatest confidence that very rich fruits for the good of the whole Church will spring from this society. Therefore we joyfully assent to the petition of the founders and canonically erect this society as a diocesan society in this our diocese and declare it erected; we approve its constitutions until it is recognized by the Holy See but only under the conditions stated in this decree; and we give permission with no time limit for the aforesaid College of St Columban to continue as the headquarters of the Society in this diocese provided all legalities are observed, under the same conditions as before. If any of these conditions is violated this permission immediately expires.
By Barbara McCormack, Special Collections & Archives
Last year saw the launch of the exhibition Letters from an Irish Missionary in China – a collaborative endeavour between the Columban Fathers Central Archive and the Russell Library, Maynooth University.
The exhibition told the remarkable story of Bishop Edward Galvin, co-founder of the Maynooth Mission to China Society which later became the Missionary Society of St. Columban and included letters, photographs and articles from the archives of the Columban Fathers, supplemented by primary and secondary sources from the Russell Library. A fantastic collection of artefacts, including Galvin’s suitcase and violin, were also on display in the Library as part of the event.
Galvin was ordained for the diocese of Cork in the year 1909 following the completion of his studies at Maynooth College. He spent the following three years as a priest on loan to the diocese of Brooklyn in New York before embarking on his journey to China. Galvin allegedly read every single book about China he could find in the Brooklyn Public Library before embarking on his travels!
After spending four years in China working as a missionary, he made a decision to return to Ireland in the hope of recruiting new volunteers from Maynooth College. It was here that he met Professor John Blowick, co-founder of the Maynooth Mission to China society. Galvin and Blowick worked tirelessly to achieve formal recognition of the Society.
The Bishops officially sanctioned the Society at a meeting in Maynooth during October 1916. Formal recognition from Rome followed in 1918, with the first batch of volunteers travelling to China in 1920.
Galvin’s devotion to the missionary cause saw him remain in China through periods of political unrest, cholera outbreaks, and floods. He was one of the last foreign missionaries to leave China in the year 1952.
Irish Christian Brothers Mission to Hupei, China, 1921-1926, Memoir of Brother Dougan (1900-1987), Impressions of Shanghai 1921, Assistance to Columban Fathers Prefecture Hubei, Monsignor Galvin, Hanyang Iron Works taken over by Japanese, holidays in Kuling Mountains, Chinese Funerals, Ancestor Worship, Marriage Customs, Snakes, Malaria, Small Pox (Black Death), Warlord Wu-Pey-Fu in Hupoi, Moscow trained Political Commissars take over College home via Saigon elegant Boulevards, shock in Dublin at new Griffith Avenue
The Hurley family have a long lineage in Ballycomane, Durrus, they had a large farm pre 1780 there when the Vickery family moved in. There was a a marriage between John Vickery and Hanora Hurley around the same time so there may be a connection there. In the 1870s elements of the family were active in East London with Dukelows and Swantons in Fenian activities and there is a connection with Michael Collins who lodged with one of their associates when he came to work in London.
One of the Hurleys was active in Home Rule Politics in the 1890s and was later involved with the County Council.
Sean Hurley may have been associated in Dublin with JJ O’Leary also from Cork, and be one of the pioneers of Aer Lingus
The Cork Catholics were not the only Christian Religion with designs on China:
Born 1832. John Richard Wolfe from the townland of Mallavonea, Skibbereen, West Cork. He was the second son of farmer Richard Wolfe and Susan Croston, He became a Scripture Reader for the Irish Church Mission. He then trained as a missionary with the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S) in England from 1857 and after being ordained Deacon in St. Paul’s Cathedral in May 1861 he was assigned to Foochow in South China.
1938, Doctor Sarah Wolfe, Medical Missionary of Skibbereen, West Cork and Chungsiang, Hupeh, China, on recovering from Illness contracted attending to wounded in Hankhow
Known as ‘Dr Sally, she retired to Canada for a few years before returning to Cork where she died in 1975. She’s buried in St Finbarr’s Cemetery in Cork. Jane Wright has written a biography: ‘She Left Her Heart in China: The Story of Dr Sally Wolfe Medical Missionary 1915-1951’.
1610 Map of China, by Chinese Cartographer in Java, finding the sea route to China, the Law of the Sea and the emergence of London as a Global City 1549-1689.
This map is taken from The Atlas of the Irish Famine, John Crowley, William J. Smyth and Mike Murphy, Cork University Press 2012. The population density of the populated areas is calculated by excluding mountain, lake and bog. The result is a density comparable to China, India and Haiti.
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1. Year of birth and day of death given in ref 6 by courtesy of Aine Ni Chonaill as follows: “1884 April 3 Thursday: Poor Mrs Lee finally breathed her last this morning at 7.20 – attended to the end by the Marchioness and the Princess [ladies in waiting to the Queen] who spent the whole night at her bedside. I ,too [tutor], was present at the death and gave the news to His Majesty, the King, and the Prince”. 2. Info from ref 4 appears to be unreliable. 3. Marriage info from ref 3.
After her wedding she accompanied her husband to India with his regiment but the marriage was not a success due to religious disagreements. Her husband was killed in the Indian Mutiny but she survived by hiding in a fissure. She was fortunate in having friends who recommended her as a suitable person to be put in charge of the nursery of the Princess Margherita of Savoy, later Queen of Italy. From the day of birth of her son (in November 1869), the Prince was consigned completely to her charge and authority, and later as his Governess. He wrote to her every day until the day of her death from fever at the Royal Palace of Quirinal in Rome in the spring of 1884. “She was a woman of great judgement, in whom their Majesties placed the fullest reliance, and the admirable manner in which she trained the Prince ever met with their entire and grateful approval. During eleven years she never left the Prince and, since the appointment of his governor [three years earlier], she continued as a trusted friend and adviser to watch over all that regarded the health of her former charge, and to interest herself in every way possible in furtherance of his studies, especially in his favourite pursuit of collecting coins which illustrate Italian history” (ref 4). The funeral service was held at the parish church of SS Vincenzo and Ananasia a Trevi. The Royal household accompanied her coffin to her grave in the Campo Verano, the burial place of Italian Royalty (ref 2). She had two sons: Frederick Lee, and Michael Lee (d. young), ref 1.
1. Blackall, H., Galweys of Munster, Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol LXXIII No 218 (Jul-Dec 1968) p. 166.
2. Unidentified news paper cutting titled “A Prince’s Governess: Cork lady in Italian Royal household” written by Miss L O’Hanlon at the time that Vittorio Emaniele III was on the throne (1900-1946). 3. https://registers.nli.ie/registers/vtls000634898#page/48/mode/1up for marriage info 4. Limerick Chronicle 22 May 1884 obituary from the Rome correspondent of the Times. 5. Article by William White on Michael White as Ambassador to Rome in 1938 in Rosscarbery Past & Present, Vol 5, 2003. 6. La giovinezza di Vittorio Emanuele 111 nei documenti dell’ Archivio Osio, by Mario Bondioli Osio, published in Milan in 1998. The author is the grandson of the tutor, named Egidio Osio, appointed to the prince in 1881 when he was 11. On p.756, we see Elisabeth Lee (1835-1884) took up service at the birth of Victor Emmanuel in 1869.
James Gallagher, Listed 1875-6, Shortcastle, Mallow. Attending Great Meeting Cork Cathedral re Intermediate Education 1859. Quarter Sessions Mallow 1865. 1870, listed 469 acres.
Charles Gallway, Kilkeran, Clonakilty. voted 1850 for Denis Galwey as High Constable for Ibane and Ballyroe (Clonakilty). Railway subscriber, 1840s, £3,750.
Christopher Galwey, Killarney, listed 1838. Listed Co. Kerry. Attended the Great Meeting in Bantry 1840 re Poor Laws. listed 1843 agent to Kenmare estate part in Cork. Long standing family associations with Bantry. Christopher Gallwey, born 1779 and died on 30/8/1861 at Tramore, Co. Waterford (Cork Examiner 3/9/1861), of Killarney, was land agent to Lord Kenmare; captain and major, 16th Regiment of Foot (Bedfordshire Regiment); DIG 1/7/183; Brother of Major John Gallwey, RIC Inspector Ballincollig, 1832, Magistrate.
Dennis Gallwey, Greenfield, Clonakilty, subscriber Dr. Daniel Donovan ‘History of Carbery, 1876. May be Denis McCarthy Gallivey, Greenfield, Clonakilty, executor of the will of Rickard Donovan, Clerk of Crown d 1883, leaving £10,164. Edward Gallwey, Skibbereen, , b. 1777, son of James Gallwey of Skibbereen, b. 1750, merchant, had a lease for lives 1791, m. Mary and died ante 1809, convicted of smuggling at Cork Assizes 1821, and transported to Australia for seven years As a result of oppressive English legislation against Irish trade (including brewing) ‘high and low, Catholic and Protestant, were enlisted in a conspiracy to defeat Revenue officers’: Froude, Ire p. 500; O’Brien, Econ Hist Ire, pp. 18, 210. But for the influence of Lord Longueville, Governor of Co Cork, Michael Gallwey, the brewer, would have been convicted of smuggling. [In 2004 my colleague Prof Frank Hodnett of University of Limerick (from Clonakilty) talked to one of the O’Donoghues in Clonakilty about the Gallweys. His comment was “Smugglers, all of them” -TJG]). Appears to have been appointed Justice of the Peace in Sydney Jun 1827, May 1834 shipping agent in Sydney, Sydney Herald May 1841 notice of him as receiver of payments from the debtors of C Roberts, in Sydney Morning Herald, 31 July 1844, the death
in Sydney on 29 of Edward Gallwey, aged 74 so b. C.1770?), formerly of Old Court, Barony of West Carbery, IRL. [Blackall says] d. 27 Aug 1844 at Sydney,
John Galwey of Lota `bred to the law and very eminent in his profession’ was admitted to Gray’s Inn 16 May 1668 and subsequently called to the Bar in Ireland.166 He was M.P. for Cork City in the Parliament of 1689 and a J.P. for the Co. and city, and was appointed a Commissioner for applotting tax for Co. Cork under King James II’s commission 10 April 1690. For his adherence to the Jacobite cause he was outlawed in 1690 and his estates forfeited. I have already related how his outlawry came to be reversed (17 June 1693), how he received a Royal Pardon (1 Aug. 1695), and how he got in and out of trouble with the Irish House of Commons in 1707 for taking young James Cotter to England. He brought three claims before the Chichester House Commissioners in 1700, of which two were successful. His will, dated 7 Feb. 1711, was proved 17 Feb. 1712/13. He was bur. in the family vault at Rathcoonev 168 He m. 1674 (‘ marriage Articles of the Lord John Galwey ‘ were dated 14 Jan. 1674) Elizabeth, dau. of Col. William Meade of Ballintubber, Co. Cork, by Elizabeth, his wife, dau. of Sir Robert Travers. Elizabeth Meade was sister of Sir John Meade, 1st Bt. (grandfather of the 1st Earl of Clanwilliam).169 By her, John Galwey had with other issue,
Major John Galwey/Gallwey, Appointed Stipendiary Magistrate 1835, Ballincollig, Sub-Inspector of Police, brother of Christopher Galwey, Magistrate, agent to Kenmare estate. Michael J. Galwey/Gallwey Esq., Jnr., Esq., Ballina House, Clonakilty, sitting Rosscarbery, 1832 Cholera. 1833 Skibbereen Quarter Session recommending pension to policeman included Alleyn Evanson. Eccles Cuthbert, Chairman, Hugh Lawton, Alleyn Evanson, Thomas Baldwin, Thomas Hungerford, Richard Ashe, Daniel Connor, W. L. Shuldham, A. O’Driscoll, Michael Gallwey, Sam Bennett, W. H. Stewart, Richard Townsend, T.
Michael Galway, R.M., Kilkieran House, Clonakilty, 1861. 1840 petition on Catholic Equality. Supporting Alexander O’Driscoll, J.P. suspended, Bandon 1841. Skibbereen 1847. Skibbereen 1847 distress meeting. Presentment sessions Ballydehob 1845 address Gortnascreena. Subscriber memorial John O’Hea J.P., Clonakilty 1847. 1846 with L. J. FLEMING, JOHN M. WRIXON, seeking relief for Ballydehob. Gallwey, Margaret, Miss, ‘not 15 years of age’, dau Michael, Esq., J.P., Skibbereen, at Gurtnascreena, Skibbereen – (CE 3/9/1845) Attending Railway meeting Drimoleague 1856. Michael, b. 15 Jan 1803, RM West Cork (appears appointed 24 May 1848), ran a stage coach service Skibbereen to Cork, later at Abbeyfeale, Co Limerick, J.P. Co Cork. When MICHAEL GALWAY passed here, after his appointment as resident magistrate, his friends lighted tar-barrels for him, and the police were by, and did not notice it. RICHARD BEAMISH, when he gained a lawsuit against his brother-magistrates, his friends lighted tar-barrels and carried them through the streets; though the police saw them they did not interfere. This is called justice here. He was said to have “some of the fine old characteristics of the real Irish gentleman, with a sympathetic knowledge of the condition of the country and 97 its people. He was a fine Gaelic scholar and speaker …” (Cork Examiner). He m. 25 Feb 1827 Ellen (d. 27 Jul 1863), dau of Daniel McCarthy of Gurtnascreeny, Co Cork. He d. 14 May 1866 (bur Templeglantine An inscription on his tomb reads ‘Ellen, who also reposes here, was the last of the McCarthy Reaghs’)
In Jan 1880 he became Registrar of Births, Marriages and Deaths for Stanthorpe district, 188 Commissioner for Affidavits CPS Stanthorpe, May 1883 acting land agent for Goondiwindi, July 1884 CPS at Dalby, Aug 1884 Registrar and Bailiff of Southern 140 District Court, Aug 1889 CPS at Ipswich [vice F W Gallwey; who was he?, h appeared again in
Michael Gallwey, (1840-1920), Brownstown, Clonakilty, 1902 magistrate in North Brisbane, resigned in Jan 1904 – TJG]. May 1890 he was made Police Magistrate at Normanton (N QLD) and reported to be aged 50 (hence b. 1840), June 1890 Justice of the Peace in registrar’s district of Burke, April 1901 Licensing Justice for Brisbane. He is listed in 1902 Brisbane Courier as attending the funeral of John the Sheriff, as his cousin. Daniel resided in 1903 d. 10 Jun 1920. r Daniel Gallwey II viz: enlisted in the Royal Irish Constabulary on 21 Dec 1857 (Service No. 22714, labourer, height 5ft 9.5 in, age 19, Catholic, native Co. Cork West, recommended by Sub Inspector Feely, Clonakilty), Constable, stationed at Waterford 14 Apr 1858, resigned 17 Sep 1861 “to better his position”, readmitted 4 Oct 1861 without loss of service, resigned 26 ? 1862 to emigrate to Queensland. In Jan 1880 he became Registrar of Births, Marriages and Deaths for Stanthorpe district, 188 Commissioner for Affidavits CPS Stanthorpe, May 1883 acting land agent for Goondiwindi, July 1884 CPS at Dalby, Aug 1884 Registrar and Bailiff of Southern 140 District Court, Aug 1889 CPS at Ipswich [vice F W Gallwey; who was he?, h appeared again in. Parents Daniel Gallwey and Anne Coghlan. Daniel m. Nov 1863 Anne Flood (b. 2 Aug 1838 Loughmore
Neal Arthur Galwey, 1875 died Patrick St. Does not appear on lists but is described in
probate papers as J.P widow Mary £6,000
Thomas Hinton Gallwey, 1864, Glenburne, Glanmire, Resident, £90, listed 1875-6. Seeking equality of endowment in Catholic education 1859. 1870, listed 282 acres. Member election committee McCarthy Downing, Skibbereen, 1868. Died 1891, Glenbourne, Glanmire, probate £26,900
William Galwey (1673-, 1733, Lota, Liberties of Cork, Son of John, MP in King James’s Parliament, Barrister, and Elizabeth d Colonel William Meade, Ballintubber, Barrister, Conformed to Church of Ireland 1720, Justice of the Peace 1733. Freeman of Cork. m 1711 Mary d Colonel John Butler, Westcourt, Kilkenny. Trustee in marriage settlement of Denis McCarthy of Cloghroe and Mary daughter of Sir. R. Meade Bart, 1728.
William Galway, 1775, Mallow.
William Galwey, Superseded 1810-30. A William Galwey Co. Freeman of Cork City voting in Cork City Election 1837.
William O’Sullivan Galwey?, (1840-), Nadrid, 1901 name difficult to discern in census
James Gilhooley (1847-1916), Fenian 1867, Irish Parliamentary Party MP, West Cork, Member ‘Bantry Band’, children at Four Mile Water (Durrus) National School. In later years his election agent was Jasper Woulfe, Solicitor, Crown Prosecutor and later TD, Skibbereen.
Collections for Evicted Tenants, Castlehaven/Myross, Myross, Ardfield, Rathbarry. 1892 Collection Ballyroe. 1893, Clonakilty Evicted Tenants Fund. Like a Mini Census. Fiery address of James Gilhooley, M.P., in Goleen on Evictions. Gilhooley ‘The Irish People Have Never Acknowledged this Right of Any Nation In the World To Govern Them.
1847. Father John Kelleher, PP. Ballydebob, on evils of Land Tenure. Townland of Kilronogue, Ballydehob, West Cork, Population 1841 445, 1847 125 Dead from Hunger, 6 from Disease, 84 Missing. 1841 74 Houses, 1847 27 Unroofed, 11 Unoccupied.
Timothy Casey McCarthy at 35 years old was the oldest man who fought at the Kilmichael ambush 20/11/1920. After the ambush he was `on the run` but the British army found Timothy out he was there and called to his parent’s home in Coulculloghta, Durrus to capture him accompanied by a local RIC man. They were about to shoot his parents for harbouring a `murderer` when the RIC man spoke and said `these people are Caseys and its McCarthy you are looking for` and the old pair was saved and Tim was known as Casey afterwards. Timothy ‘Casey’ McCarthy, Coolculaghta, (Captain of Durrus Company IRA) took part in the Kilmichael Ambush with General Tom Barry. He worked for 40 years with Dick Gay, Carrigaline (the Gays were from nearby Droumreagh), died December 1956 firing party old IRA under Captain Raphy P. Keyes rendered military honours at the graveside. Members included Mortimer O’Sullivan, John Keohane, Jack McCarthy, Jack Wholihan. In attendance were Tom Barry, Ned Cotter TD., Dick Gay, Senator Ted O’Sullivan attended removal from St. Finbarr’s hospital. Dick Gay was building contractor and in the 1940s got a contract to build local authority houses in Kinsale. He faced down the Kinsale unions who blacked his site as he insisted on employing his own men. Dick Gay may have served an informal apprenteship with either Timothy McCarthy or his father.
Re Peadar Ó hAnnracháin. Peadar was a wonderful Conradh na Gaeilge organiser throughout a number of counties including Cork and he wrote several books as Gaeilge. He also wrote on the Southern Star as ‘Cois Life’ in the 1940s and 1950s. In that period he worked in the Pigs and Bacon Commission in Dublin. The column often wandered over long lost history, family relationships and there was a touch of the ‘Seanachaí’ about them. The daughter of the Gaelic Scholar, landowner and businessman in Ballydehob Thomas Swanton, Crianlarich, gave him her father’s papers.
One of 13 children, 10 of whom survived and the majority emigrated.
In Colaiste Chairbhe (owned by Judge Devoy, New York, later Tony O’Reilly, former CEO, Heinz Corporation).
1641. Listing of West Cork Gentry Indicted for ‘Treason’ at Youghal Quarter Sessions