1835-1920. Irish Speakers in West Cork Litigation, 1835 Election Petition Cork County Election. Notice Never Explained in Irish. Irish in Election. Interpeters in Some Booths

1871 Linguistic Map of West Cork, darker red greater Irish speaking are.








Courtesy: Mary Phelan, Dublin City University.

Irish Speakers, Interpreters and the Courts 1751 – 1921. Mary Phelan 286PP Four Courts Press Dublin in Association with the Irish Legal History Society. Price €55 

The Administration of Justice (Language) Act (Ireland) 1737, (herein after referred to as the 1737 Act), stipulated that all legal proceedings in Ireland should take place in English, thus placing Irish speakers at a huge disadvantage, obliging them to communicate through others, and treating them as foreigners in their own country. Gradually, over time, legislation was passed to allow the grand juries, forerunners of county councils, to employ salaried interpreters. Drawing on extensive research on grand jury records held at national and local level, supplemented by records of correspondence with the Chief Secretary’s Office in Dublin Castle, this book provides definitive answers on where, when, and until when, Irish language court interpreters were employed. Contemporaneous newspaper court reports are used to illustrate how exactly the system worked in practice and to explore official, primarily negative, attitudes towards Irish speakers

Saunders’s News-Letter 7 November 1836 page 2 Court of Exchequer – Saturday Nisi Prius Chief
Baron Tithes Recels – Cork
William Hogarthy and William Rownan were brought up in the custody of the commissioner of
rebellion, for not answering the bill filed by the plaintiff in the cause, for the recovery of tithe
Rownan stated that he did not get any notice to pay the money before he was arrested.
Hogarthy could only speak Irish, and his fellow-prisoner was his interpreter, from whom the court
learned that he was in a state of great destitution, his wife having been that day obliged to pledge an
article to support him in Newgate.
The prisoners were then conveyed to the Marshalsea.





1863. Shenanigans at Bandon Election Nomination. Bernard V Sullivan, Regan, a Broguemaker from Kilbrogan, Dances and Capers Like a Madman on the Witness Table, Cries of ‘No Surrender’, ‘Swaddler’, ‘Soupers’, ‘Turncoat’. Detachments of 11th Hussars from Fermoy, from 11th Regiment of Foot from Cork, 200 RIC from All Over West Cork. Dr. Ormston, Nominator of Thomas Kingston Sullivan a Descendant of Fane Beecher, Called a Traitor and Turncoat.


Bandon election of MP to London Parliament 1863, Honourable Henry Boyle Bernard versus Thomas Kingston Sullivan Esq., Tanner, with electors Names.

Colonel The Honourable Henry Boyle Bernard (1812-1895), Castle Bernard, Educated Eton. He was the third son of James Bernard, 2nd Earl of Bandon (1785–1856) and his wife Mary Susan Albinia Brodrick.  Co. Grand Master Orange Order  Colonel Henry Boyle Bernard.  Commanded 87th South Cork Light Infantry, Coolmain (with 48 acres leased from Stawell family), Kilbrittain in summer, 1876-6.  Supporting Alexander O’Driscoll, J.P. suspended, Bandon 1841.  He was elected at a by-election in February 1863 as the Member of Parliament  for Bandon, filling the vacancy caused by the death of his uncle William Smyth Bernard (a son of the 1st Earl of Bandon).  Elected Conservative MP for Bandon in 1862? defeated Thomas Kingston Sullivan, Esq., Solicitor, defeated 1868, election by William Shaw, Bernard received no Catholic votes. Subscriber 1861 to Smith’s History of Cork.  Cork Spring Assizes Juror 1863.  Committee member Bandon Navigation Scheme 1842.  Member provisional Committee projected Bandon to Bantry Railway 1845.  Anti-Repeal Meeting, Dunmanway 1845.   1861 Ringarone Schools funded by incumbent, gratuities and Church Education Society.  School at Coolmain western end maintained by Hon. Colonel Bernard.  Used to bring Regiment to Coolmain after exercises in Bandon prior to being disbanded for the harvest.  Prior to death declared bankrupt.  1884, signed a  protest against the dismissal of Lord Rossmore,  Head of Orange Order, Monaghan.

William Conner Sullivan Esq., (1809-1886), Overton, Bandon, tannery proprietor, married 1838 Dora, 4th daughter of R. Treselian. Churchwarden Kilbrogan, 1833.  Hill House, Bandon, William C. Sullivan was leasing this house from the Devonshire estate in 1851 when it was valued at £20. It is labelled Barrett’s Hill House on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map but as Hill House on the 25-inch edition of the 1890s. It does not appear to be extant now.  1845 publicly thanked the Bandon Agricultural Society for endeavours in bringing the railway to Bandon which would shortly  advocate for land improvement.  In  1886 probate to widow £10 probably transferred its properties prior to death.  Brother of Thomas Kingston Sullivan, solicitor major property owner,  whose granddaughter Anne Winifred Sullivan became the Ann W Sullivan was the fourth wife of the 2nd Duke of Westminster,  the Sullivans were tanners and it was from that Tanning family that the second Duchess of Westminster – Ann Sullivan – was descended so to get from tanning in Bandon to that position in society is staggering given that it was only a handful of generations.

Associate of Thomas Kingston Sullivan:

John Hurley, Esq., Brewer, Malster and Hop Merchant, Chapel Lane, Bandon. 1832 election voted for Biggs. with Eugene O’Neill invited Daniel O’Connell to a dinner of the Reformers of West Riding. 1841 meeting to improve navigation on Bandon River. 1842 O’Connell Tribute, Bandon. Involved in Bandon Agricultural Society advocate land improvement and use of native resources, 1845 publicly at the Show. Donor to Bantry Convent of Mercy.  Part of a group of local improvers cross political and religious what Dean Swift would, call Irish patriots who make 2 blades of grass where 1 grew before, including  William Connor Sullivan and T. J. Biggs, Garryhankerdmore.  Will 1855 proven 1849 leaves his mill, brewery, farm to brothers in law, John Hassett, Forest, Macroom, Henry Hassett, attorney, Cork in trust for wife Johanna nee Hassett.   Probably the father of Charles Francis Hurley, brewer died 1874.

Funeral Right Honourable James Earl of Bandon 1856. 1877 Funeral of The Right Honourable Francis Bernard, 3rd Earl of Bandon, Eton, M.A., D.C.L, Oxford, (1810-1877). Hearse to Family Crypt Ballymodan, Bandon. Drawn by Six Black Horses,With Velvet Covering, and Armorial Bearings. Attended by Royal Cork Artillery Militia, South Cork Infantry Militia, West Cork Militia.


According to Burke, the first Francis Bernard settled in Ireland around the time of Elizabeth I. In 1703 Francis Bernard purchased parts of the Earl of Clancarty estate in the barony of Muskerry, including Ballytrasna. A descendent, also Francis Bernard, was created Viscount Bernard and Earl of Bandon in 1800. The Earl of Bandon’s estate in county Cork amounted to almost 41,000 acres in the 1870s. At the time of Griffith’s Valuation, the estate was among the principal lessors in the parishes of Skull, barony of West Carbery, Ballinadee, Ballymoney, Desertserges, Kilmaloda, Kinneigh, barony of East Carbery, Ardfield, Castleventry, Kilkerranmore, Kilmeen, Lislee and Ross, barony of Ibane and Barryroe, Liscarroll and Buttevant, barony of Orrery, Kilmore, Knockavilly, barony of Kinalea, Athnowen, barony of East Muskerry, Caherlag, Carrigtohill, barony of Barrymore and Ballymodan, barony of Kinalmeaky. A Colonel Bernard, resident in India, was the owner of over 900 acres in county Waterford in the 1870s. The Waterford estate derives from Anne Bernard, who married Robert Foulkes of Youghal in the eighteenth century but bequeathed her estate to her nephew, Stephen Bernard. Sadleir, referring to the 1770s, mentions “Barnard of Prospect Hall, lives mostly in London” and notes that Stephen Bernard was MP for Bandon, 1727-1757.The newspaper account differ in the colour and number of the horses at the funeral

Like the nearby Devonshire Estate the Bernard/Bandon Estate seems to have tested the tenant relatively well. Unlike Viscount Berehaven of Bantry and his O’Sullivan cronies on Beara such as Patrick O’Sullivan, Esq, Millcove, or Patrick O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass, Kealkil. Most Protestant Landlords treated their tenant better then the Catholic O’Sullivans

The Bernards/Earls of Bandon were largely resident even though they hd a London house. The were active in promoting local railway and agricultural development. The had an extreme form of Protestantism active in funding proselytising such s that of the Rev. Fisher in Toormore and others.

Around 1810 the central estate at Castlmahon employed 200 had its own schools dn the Estate pid pensions.

There was an annual dinner for the more substantial tenants in Bandon this was a sober severe affair.

The Bernard Kerry Estate in contrast a completely different type of celebration for the mostly Catholic large tenants. Drink flowed, plenty of Irish music fiddlers, uileean pipe players.

On both the Devonshire and Bandon Estate contrary to common perception there were quite a number of substantial Catholic tenants such as the Crowleys of Ballyourane in Caheragh one of the largest tenant farmers in West Cork.

Right Honourable Francis Bernard, 3rd Earl of Bandon, Eton, M.A., D.C.L, Oxford (1817-1877), Castlebernard, son Francis 2nd Earl of Bandon (1755-1830) and Mary Susan Albina Brodrick. MP Bandon 1831. Chairing Famine Relief Meeting Dunmanway 1846. 1857 member Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society.  Member Irish Society Antiquaries 1861.  Colonel Royal Cork Artillery Militia. Subscriber 1861 Rev. Gibson’s History of Cork. Promoter flax growing West Cork 1850s.  Promoting mineral development in West Cork including barytes mines on his Dereenlomane property, Ballydehob. 1870 appointed Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotorum of Cork County. His obituary noted that despite his extreme political religious views he was allegedly held in high esteem by all classes. Frequently sitting in Bandon Petty Session Court which adjourned for a week on his death. His funeral to family crypt  Ballymodan attended by Royal Cork Artillery Militia, South Cork Infantry Militia. West Cork Militia.  Probate 1877, executor James Francis Bernard, 4th Earl £18,000

Castle Bernard, built on site of O’Mahony Castle, Burned by IRA During the Troubles:

Among the mourners listed are Wheeler Dohertys. Land Agents and solicitor. By advancing mortgages to the Bernards they ended up de facto owning a large part of the estate in the late. Genealogically the Doherty are part of th Northern Uí Neill and descend from Niall of The Nine Hostages.

Around 1971 Cork County Librarian, Paddy Madden acquired their papers which are now the Bandon Estate Collection in the Cork Archives






1871 Western Tenantry Entertained by Lord Bandon on coming of age of Lord Bernard, at Durrus Court (Gearhameen). Dinner provided by James Philips of Durrus and Mrs. Fitzgerald, Cork. 1871, Meeting Courthouse, Durrus, Patrick’s Day re Alarming Spread of Smallpox



Right. Hon. James Francis 4th Earl of Bandon (1850-1924), (see also Bernard) K.P., 1871, Castlebernard, Bandon.  Registered Vestryman of Christ Church, Kilmeen, 1870.  1903, Sale. Lord Bandon gives notice of his intention to sell his estates in Co Cork – extensive holdings with some 15,000 tenants. Chairman Irish Landowners Association 1910 Listed 1913, listed 1922.  1888.   Landlords, Lord Bandon, Duke of Devonshire, Lord Bandon owns 40,941 acres in Co Cork, Duke of Devonshire has 32,550 acres. Two of the three largest landowners in the Co.. Grand Secretary Freemasons from 1875 – 1895 and Provincial Grand Master of Munster. Married Georgina Dorothy Evans Freke d 7th Lord Carbery and wife Harriet Shouldham, the Dunmanway Shouldhams are descended in the female line from a McCarthy heiress who converted.  Castlemahon burned by IRA and kidnapped 1921

Funeral Right Honourable James Earl of Bandon 1856.




Sir John Jocelyn Coghill, one of Ireland’s first photographers from 1854, Glenbarrahane, Castletownshend, West Cork, and Coghill Magistrates. Part of his Collection in Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

West Cork History

Sir John Jocelyn Coghill, one of Ireland’s first photographers from 1854,Glenbarrahane, Castletownsend, West Cork, and Coghill Magistrates.

Another early photographer at the time was the Rev. Freke of Durrus but thee is no trace of his work.

Getty Museum:


Sir John Jocelyn Coghill, 4th Baronet, and typically known as Sir Jocelyn Coghill, came from a long-established and wealthy Yorkshire family. He was born in Co.KIlkenny. His second marriage brought him ties to Ireland. When or how he became interested in photography is not known, but Coghill began taking paper negatives by the early 1850s or even before. His photographs reflect the interests of a wealthy amateur and include family portraits, idyllic country scenes, and architectural studies. Coghill became briefly active in photographic circles in 1857, contributing a view to The Photographic Album for the Year 1857; showing nine landscapes in the “Manchester Art Treasures” exhibition…

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1883 Funeral of the Earl of Bantry, aged 83, Auction of the Late Earl of Bantry, Livestock including Two Handsome Plough Bullocks, Trained. Probate £107,000 (Circa €25 Million in 2020 terms).

1883 Funeral of the Earl of Bantry, aged 83, Auction of the Late Earl of Bantry, Livestock including Two Handsome Plough Bullocks, Trained. Probate £107,000 (Circa €25 Million in 2020 terms).

To Give an estimate to present day values a Resident Magistrate had a package of around £500 per annum a rough equivalent Irish District Justice is on around €150,000, c £120,000.

His predessor left an estate of c £50,000.

What is surprising is that the Bantry Estate throughout the 19th century hoved on insolvency, Lord Ardilaun commissioner a financial report.

Finances of Bantry Estate, 1888, requested by Lord Ardilaun rents of £11,600 for Bantry and £4,800 for Macroom, deficit of £2,035, with rent reductions for tenants of 25%.

1871 Lord Ardilaun (Guinness heir) married Lady Olivia Hedges-White, daughter of The 3rd Earl of Bantry, whose family home is Bantry House in County Cork. His report showed a rental of £10,000 per annum. The agent to the estate the Somers Paye kept the White family on a tight financial leash. Despite the value of his estate the previous Earl of Bantry, Lord Berehaven kept complaining about a lack of cash.

Funeral of the Earl of Banty aged 83,

1884, William Henry Hedges Hare Hedges-White, (1801-1884), 3rd Earl of Bantry.  Probate £107,000.


Plough Bullocks Carlow 1790s


.On 3 January 1790 Phil reports something new – Ned Nolan has lent him two plough bullocks to help keep the ploughs going.

1938, Local Cures, Bantry from School Folklore Collection, Goosegrease for Bruises ….

National Folklore Collection (NFC) and its collections

The objectives of the National Folklore Collection (NFC) are to collect, preserve and disseminate the oral tradition of Ireland. The NFC, which is located in UCD, includes the following records:

  • c.2 million manuscript pages
  • c.500,000 index cards
  • c.12,000 hours of sound recordings
  • c.80,000 photographs
  • c.1,000 hours of video material

The original holdings of the NFC are divided into collections:


1801-1803, Maps by Richard Manning of the Estate of Arthur Lemuel Shuldham, Esq., Dunmanway.

1801-1803, Maps by Richard Manning of the Estate of Arthur Lemuel Shuldham, Esq., Dunmanway.

The Shuldhams on the maternal side are a branch of the McCarthys. Shuldham c 1720 married a McCarthy heiress. She appears shortly after in the convert rolls.


Estate Maps; https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipOIgF6kh73VL_5XGBH-Pho6HRATm7yO-DK-1eBdr1sE5Herv6BH2THPzn9Tg9g9IQ?key=NUFiTHYzREFTSC1zUllmaThXN1c4VFlacDNvN0RB


Usher Genealogy: Marriage c 1720 of Edmond Shuldham to Miss MacCarthy, heiress to MacCarthy Mór, Dunmanway, West Cork.

Dunmanway, West Cork, Shuldham Pedrigree from Genealogical Office, Dublin, commencing with marriage of 1713 between Edmund Shuldham, Crown Solicitor to Mary McCarthy Spannigh.




1883, Middle Temple. Law Students London, Rikuchro Masujima, Japan. John MacGillycuddy of the Reeks Killarney. Robert Travers, Timoleague, Dick Hennessy, Died 1926, Kinsale, King’s Counsel, Used to Entertain Young Barristers in the Law Library with Tales of Old Cork

Middle Temple one of the four London Law Schools. These entries capture the British Empire at it height. There are quite a number of Irish and Cork entries.

There are a number of Japanese entries. Presumably this coincides with the modernisation of Japan. Unlike India or Pakistan it was not colonised they had the misfortune to be looted by the tis East India Company and after them the British

The sons of the ancient Gaelic Families

1904 Robert Travers, Queens College Galway. Kings Inns, Middle Temple 1878, Barrister, 1901 Judges Registrar, Dublin Timoleague, executor of Robert Augustus Travers, 1878 Clerk in Probate Court, Dublin, died 1904 probate £8,331 1910 living Dublin wife English 2 servant probably returned to home place Timoleague shortly after.

1926, Dick Hennessy, King’s Counsel, Bencher 1913, County Court Judge Waterford 1919.

1876, 1891, 1899 Richard Martin (Dick/RM) Hennessy TCD Middle Temple, 1876, Bencher 1913, County Court Judge Waterford 1913. Ballindeasig House, Kinsale, 2nd son of John Chrysostom Hennessy. 1899 instructed by McCarthy, Bandon in election case for applicants allegation of bribery.At inaugural meeting Solicitors Apprentices Debating Society. Family probably had an estate. 1891 address Lower Baggot St., Dublin executor of fathers estate £14,427. 1926 died at residence 6 York Terrace, Cork Substantial buildings are marked at the site of Ballindeasig House on the first Ordnance Survey map and at the time of Griffith’s Valuation the house valued at £18 was occupied and held by Richard Kenefick in fee. Ballindeasig was conveyed to John C. Hennessy by Richard Kenefick in 1853. It was the home of Michael Hennessy in the late 19th century and was left by Miss Minnie Hennessy to Bishop Cohalan of Cork in 1937. The house was then converted into a holiday home for the Sisters of Mercy Order. Now known as Tabor Lodge it is a centre for the treatment of substance abuse



1879 Funeral of Timothy McCarty Downing, Solicitor, M.P., Landlord, Funeral Cortege took a Few Hours to Get to Caheragh Old Graveyard from Skibbereen.

1813-1879,1835, 1847 Timothy McCarthy Downing “Apprenticed to F.H. Downing, Kenmare. Solicitor in Skibbeeen 1836. , MP. His parents were Eugene and Nellie. Eugene was from Kenmare and Nellie hailed from Kilfadamore ? Back in 1876 Timothy proposed to change the name of Skibbereen to Illenmore or Illentown, which was voted down. ” Skibbereen 1847 distress meeting. as Clover Hill. Addressed meeting 1848 in Skibbereen to celebrate Liberation of William Smith O’brien. Seeking equality of endowment in Catholic education Prospect House 1859. REntal income from his estates £2,000. From around Kenmare and brother of Roger Downing, Merchant, Bantry alos active in Repeal Told O’Donovan Ross he was a ’48’ man he had a cherished possession a green cap the 48 men had when they were on the run and he would have been the first to handle a pike if he thought it would be of any use but not with England’s Army and Navy.. “Downing McCarthy, (M.P. for Co. Cork) ; second son of Eugene Downing, Esq, of Kenmare, co. Kerry b. 1814 ; m. 1837. Is a J.P. and D.L. of co. Cork. First elected, 1868. Res.—Prospect House, Skibbereen, co. Cork; Reform Club, S. W.

1879, Timothy McCarthy Downing, b 1813, Skibbereen (born Kerry), MP. Landlord, Solicitor, 

1882 Timetable West Cork Railway, Prince of Wales Route, Cork to Glengarriff via Bantry. Mail Car from Skibbereen to Leap.

1849.  Commencement of Cork Bandon Railway with The Bandon-Ballinhassig stretch operations with two engines, Rith Tinneadh (Speeding Fire) and Sighe Goithe (Whirlwind)



Mail Car from Skibbereen to Leap.


1846.  Subscribers to Projected Railway (Probably to Skibbereen), Francis Roycroft, Accountant, €2,500, John Shannon, Accountant, £2,500, Thomas Attridge, £3,250, Dealer all Ballydehob, Daniel Donovan, M.D., Skibbereen, £2,500.

650 Men Working Night and Day to Open Skibbereen Railway. Along the line Large Numbers of Rustics Lined Up to See the First Train.


The Right Honourable Earl of Bandon, Patron and Honorary Director of the Steam Carriage and Wagon Company for The Conveyance of Goods and passengers Throughout Ireland Upon Common Roads.

1830, Subscribers to Robert O’Callaghan Newenham’s, (25 years Superintendent Barracks Department of Ireland), Picturesque Views of the Antiquities of Ireland. 1845 Promoter of Projected Bandon to Bantry Railway



1890, Will of Denis Murphy, Builder, Bantry, Builder of Bantry Pier, Father of William Martin Murphy. 1919, William Martin Murphy, Derrymihan, Beara and Dublin, businessman. Estate £250,000. He left a range of businesses with a substantial asset value, including Dublin’s tramway system, hotels in Dublin and Glengariff, Cleary’s Department store, a range of railway shares and various properties including a builders yard in Bantry (which is still in business). He had also invested heavily in the Dublin newspaper industry.