Irish Speakers, Interpreters and the Courts 1751 – 1921. Mary Phelan 286PP Four Courts Press Dublin in Association with the Irish Legal History Society. Price €55
The Administration of Justice (Language) Act (Ireland) 1737, (herein after referred to as the 1737 Act), stipulated that all legal proceedings in Ireland should take place in English, thus placing Irish speakers at a huge disadvantage, obliging them to communicate through others, and treating them as foreigners in their own country. Gradually, over time, legislation was passed to allow the grand juries, forerunners of county councils, to employ salaried interpreters. Drawing on extensive research on grand jury records held at national and local level, supplemented by records of correspondence with the Chief Secretary’s Office in Dublin Castle, this book provides definitive answers on where, when, and until when, Irish language court interpreters were employed. Contemporaneous newspaper court reports are used to illustrate how exactly the system worked in practice and to explore official, primarily negative, attitudes towards Irish speakers
Saunders’s News-Letter 7 November 1836 page 2 Court of Exchequer – Saturday Nisi Prius Chief Baron Tithes Recels – Cork William Hogarthy and William Rownan were brought up in the custody of the commissioner of rebellion, for not answering the bill filed by the plaintiff in the cause, for the recovery of tithe composition. Rownan stated that he did not get any notice to pay the money before he was arrested. Hogarthy could only speak Irish, and his fellow-prisoner was his interpreter, from whom the court learned that he was in a state of great destitution, his wife having been that day obliged to pledge an article to support him in Newgate. The prisoners were then conveyed to the Marshalsea.
Bandon election of MP to London Parliament 1863, Honourable Henry Boyle Bernard versus Thomas Kingston Sullivan Esq., Tanner, with electors Names.
Colonel The Honourable Henry Boyle Bernard (1812-1895), Castle Bernard, Educated Eton. He was the third son of James Bernard, 2nd Earl of Bandon (1785–1856) and his wife Mary Susan Albinia Brodrick. Co. Grand Master Orange Order Colonel Henry Boyle Bernard. Commanded 87th South Cork Light Infantry, Coolmain (with 48 acres leased from Stawell family), Kilbrittain in summer, 1876-6. Supporting Alexander O’Driscoll, J.P. suspended, Bandon 1841. He was elected at a by-election in February 1863 as the Member of Parliament for Bandon, filling the vacancy caused by the death of his uncle William Smyth Bernard (a son of the 1st Earl of Bandon). Elected Conservative MP for Bandon in 1862? defeated Thomas Kingston Sullivan, Esq., Solicitor, defeated 1868, election by William Shaw, Bernard received no Catholic votes. Subscriber 1861 to Smith’s History of Cork. Cork Spring Assizes Juror 1863. Committee member Bandon Navigation Scheme 1842. Member provisional Committee projected Bandon to Bantry Railway 1845. Anti-Repeal Meeting, Dunmanway 1845. 1861 Ringarone Schools funded by incumbent, gratuities and Church Education Society. School at Coolmain western end maintained by Hon. Colonel Bernard. Used to bring Regiment to Coolmain after exercises in Bandon prior to being disbanded for the harvest. Prior to death declared bankrupt. 1884, signed a protest against the dismissal of Lord Rossmore, Head of Orange Order, Monaghan.
William Conner Sullivan Esq., (1809-1886), Overton, Bandon, tannery proprietor, married 1838 Dora, 4th daughter of R. Treselian. Churchwarden Kilbrogan, 1833. Hill House, Bandon, William C. Sullivan was leasing this house from the Devonshire estate in 1851 when it was valued at £20. It is labelled Barrett’s Hill House on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map but as Hill House on the 25-inch edition of the 1890s. It does not appear to be extant now. 1845 publicly thanked the Bandon Agricultural Society for endeavours in bringing the railway to Bandon which would shortly advocate for land improvement. In 1886 probate to widow £10 probably transferred its properties prior to death. Brother of Thomas Kingston Sullivan, solicitor major property owner, whose granddaughter Anne Winifred Sullivan became the Ann W Sullivan was the fourth wife of the 2nd Duke of Westminster, the Sullivans were tanners and it was from that Tanning family that the second Duchess of Westminster – Ann Sullivan – was descended so to get from tanning in Bandon to that position in society is staggering given that it was only a handful of generations.
Associate of Thomas Kingston Sullivan:
John Hurley, Esq., Brewer, Malster and Hop Merchant, Chapel Lane, Bandon. 1832 election voted for Biggs. with Eugene O’Neill invited Daniel O’Connell to a dinner of the Reformers of West Riding. 1841 meeting to improve navigation on Bandon River. 1842 O’Connell Tribute, Bandon. Involved in Bandon Agricultural Society advocate land improvement and use of native resources, 1845 publicly at the Show. Donor to Bantry Convent of Mercy. Part of a group of local improvers cross political and religious what Dean Swift would, call Irish patriots who make 2 blades of grass where 1 grew before, including William Connor Sullivan and T. J. Biggs, Garryhankerdmore. Will 1855 proven 1849 leaves his mill, brewery, farm to brothers in law, John Hassett, Forest, Macroom, Henry Hassett, attorney, Cork in trust for wife Johanna nee Hassett. Probably the father of Charles Francis Hurley, brewer died 1874.
According to Burke, the first Francis Bernard settled in Ireland around the time of Elizabeth I. In 1703 Francis Bernard purchased parts of the Earl of Clancarty estate in the barony of Muskerry, including Ballytrasna. A descendent, also Francis Bernard, was created Viscount Bernard and Earl of Bandon in 1800. The Earl of Bandon’s estate in county Cork amounted to almost 41,000 acres in the 1870s. At the time of Griffith’s Valuation, the estate was among the principal lessors in the parishes of Skull, barony of West Carbery, Ballinadee, Ballymoney, Desertserges, Kilmaloda, Kinneigh, barony of East Carbery, Ardfield, Castleventry, Kilkerranmore, Kilmeen, Lislee and Ross, barony of Ibane and Barryroe, Liscarroll and Buttevant, barony of Orrery, Kilmore, Knockavilly, barony of Kinalea, Athnowen, barony of East Muskerry, Caherlag, Carrigtohill, barony of Barrymore and Ballymodan, barony of Kinalmeaky. A Colonel Bernard, resident in India, was the owner of over 900 acres in county Waterford in the 1870s. The Waterford estate derives from Anne Bernard, who married Robert Foulkes of Youghal in the eighteenth century but bequeathed her estate to her nephew, Stephen Bernard. Sadleir, referring to the 1770s, mentions “Barnard of Prospect Hall, lives mostly in London” and notes that Stephen Bernard was MP for Bandon, 1727-1757.The newspaper account differ in the colour and number of the horses at the funeral
Like the nearby Devonshire Estate the Bernard/Bandon Estate seems to have tested the tenant relatively well. Unlike Viscount Berehaven of Bantry and his O’Sullivan cronies on Beara such as Patrick O’Sullivan, Esq, Millcove, or Patrick O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass, Kealkil. Most Protestant Landlords treated their tenant better then the Catholic O’Sullivans
The Bernards/Earls of Bandon were largely resident even though they hd a London house. The were active in promoting local railway and agricultural development. The had an extreme form of Protestantism active in funding proselytising such s that of the Rev. Fisher in Toormore and others.
Around 1810 the central estate at Castlmahon employed 200 had its own schools dn the Estate pid pensions.
There was an annual dinner for the more substantial tenants in Bandon this was a sober severe affair.
The Bernard Kerry Estate in contrast a completely different type of celebration for the mostly Catholic large tenants. Drink flowed, plenty of Irish music fiddlers, uileean pipe players.
On both the Devonshire and Bandon Estate contrary to common perception there were quite a number of substantial Catholic tenants such as the Crowleys of Ballyourane in Caheragh one of the largest tenant farmers in West Cork.
Right Honourable Francis Bernard, 3rd Earl of Bandon, Eton, M.A., D.C.L, Oxford (1817-1877), Castlebernard, son Francis 2nd Earl of Bandon (1755-1830) and Mary Susan Albina Brodrick. MP Bandon 1831. Chairing Famine Relief Meeting Dunmanway 1846. 1857 member Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Member Irish Society Antiquaries 1861. Colonel Royal Cork Artillery Militia. Subscriber 1861 Rev. Gibson’s History of Cork. Promoter flax growing West Cork 1850s. Promoting mineral development in West Cork including barytes mines on his Dereenlomane property, Ballydehob. 1870 appointed Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotorum of Cork County. His obituary noted that despite his extreme political religious views he was allegedly held in high esteem by all classes. Frequently sitting in Bandon Petty Session Court which adjourned for a week on his death. His funeral to family crypt Ballymodan attended by Royal Cork Artillery Militia, South Cork Infantry Militia. West Cork Militia. Probate 1877, executor James Francis Bernard, 4th Earl £18,000
Castle Bernard, built on site of O’Mahony Castle, Burned by IRA During the Troubles:
Among the mourners listed are Wheeler Dohertys. Land Agents and solicitor. By advancing mortgages to the Bernards they ended up de facto owning a large part of the estate in the late. Genealogically the Doherty are part of th Northern Uí Neill and descend from Niall of The Nine Hostages.
Around 1971 Cork County Librarian, Paddy Madden acquired their papers which are now the Bandon Estate Collection in the Cork Archives
1871 Western Tenantry Entertained by Lord Bandon on coming of age of Lord Bernard, at Durrus Court (Gearhameen). Dinner provided by James Philips of Durrus and Mrs. Fitzgerald, Cork. 1871, Meeting Courthouse, Durrus, Patrick’s Day re Alarming Spread of Smallpox
Right. Hon. James Francis 4th Earl of Bandon (1850-1924), (see also Bernard) K.P., 1871, Castlebernard, Bandon. Registered Vestryman of Christ Church, Kilmeen, 1870. 1903, Sale. Lord Bandon gives notice of his intention to sell his estates in Co Cork – extensive holdings with some 15,000 tenants. Chairman Irish Landowners Association 1910 Listed 1913, listed 1922. 1888. Landlords, Lord Bandon, Duke of Devonshire, Lord Bandon owns 40,941 acres in Co Cork, Duke of Devonshire has 32,550 acres. Two of the three largest landowners in the Co.. Grand Secretary Freemasons from 1875 – 1895 and Provincial Grand Master of Munster. Married Georgina Dorothy Evans Freke d 7th Lord Carbery and wife Harriet Shouldham, the Dunmanway Shouldhams are descended in the female line from a McCarthy heiress who converted. Castlemahon burned by IRA and kidnapped 1921
Funeral Right Honourable James Earl of Bandon 1856.