Conveyancing Strategies employed by Landlords to Circumnavigate the Penal Laws from The Bantry Estate Records Relaxation and Catholics Using Rent Charges to Vote in Barony of Carbery early 19th Century.

Wylie, The Authority on Irish Conveyancing Law,  states that an Irish statute of 1703 debarred Catholics from purchasing land  and limited the length of lease they could obtain to 31 years ; this statute has been said to have been a factor in the creation of leases for twenty to thirty years (sometimes longer) determinable on the expiration of three lives . This kind of lease was known as a Shelbourne lease. De Moleyns explains that these leases were made for lives and years determinable by collateral events such as the dropping of particular lives named in the lease. For example the lease could be for 99 years determinable on three lives, renewable forever. These leases were devised for the benefit of Catholics who were prohibited by the Penal Laws from purchasing freeholds.  These leases were therefore a combination of leasehold tenure (the length of the lease)  and a freehold estate ( the grant for lives).  Wylie again comments ” by choosing one’s lives carefully  so that they were unlikely to outlast the term of years and by making the term run concurrently one ended up with an estate for a certain term but which was freehold for as long as any one of the lives survived”.  A freehold estate carried the right to vote in elections which was an important factor for landlords, when casting a vote was a public act.   …Thanks to Brian Roche.

 

 

The loosening of the electoral laws from 1790 gave Catholics in restricted circumstances the right to vote.  In Bantry and Durrus there was a concerted and ultimately successful campaign to register tenants in the Liberal Interest.  This was allied with Anti Tithe Agitation and Repeal.

Voting 1835, Freemen of Cork, Leaseholders entitled to Vote, Baronies of West Carbery , Bantry and Bere:

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1l-ttMKKPJT6RP-EwvivLvpw3aeOsNjpv9q8-_kDLFJ4/edit#gid=0

 

The smaller rents are cottiers or labourers.  There are quite a number of significant tenant many with multiple holdings.  This is only the immediate town of Bantry the whole estate stretched to Beara c 40,000 acres a lot mountain and bog.  The original land owners were largely in place the O’Sullivan acting as Middlemen.  From the early 19th century the finances of the estate were perilous in contrast many of the larger tenants Catholic as well as Protestant prospered.

Receiver appointed to Bantry Estate over rents June 1st 1837 re debt of £46,153 Leases Scheduled as part of exercise 
No Name Rent £ Shillings Pence Date of Lease Date
Lots 1-152, Bantry Town Holdings
1 Tim Sullivan 27.13,10 1823, 3 lives or 61 years
2 Jer Donovan 3.18.8 1824, 3 lives or 61 years
3 Denis Kearney? .11.1 1808, 1 life or 21 years
4 John Costigan .11.1 1817, 2 lives or 21 years
5 Owen McCarthy .7.7
6 John Goodwin 2.10.
7 John J. Flynn 1.16.10 1812, 3 lives
8 Owen Sheehy .11.1 1817
9 Denis Hurley .11.1 1817, 3 lives
10 John B. Corkery? .11. 1817, 3 lives
11 Tim Keohane .11.1 1817, 3 lives
12 Judith Riordane 1.1. 1808, 1 life or 21 years
13 Corns Sullivan 1.1. 1816, 1 life or 21 years
14 Mercy/Manny? White 1.2.1 1814, 1 life or 21 years
15 Margaret Moynihane .11.1 1817, 3 lives
16 Denis Bohane .11.1
17 Denis Cremeen .11.1
18 Owen Sullivan 1.1
19 John Barry 1.12.1 1 life or 21 years
20 Francis Banfield .11.1 1817, 1 life or 21 years
21 Edward Blake 2.2 3 lives
22 J.B. Corkery? 2.2 1818, 3 lives
23 Denis Shea 2
24 John B..ery 40
25 Jer Sullivan 1.1 1805, 3 lives
26 John Sullivan .11.1
27 Elias Helen 1.1. 1813, 3 lives Pawnbrokers? associated with Trenwiths of Rooska originally then Beara, also probably Cork
28 Julia Timpler? 1.1.0
29 David Sullivan 1.2.1
30 Tim Sullivan 1.1.
31 Tim Donovan 1.1
32 Tim Shea 1.1 1809, I life or 21 years
33 Cors McNamara 1.5.
34 The …John Kingston 27.13.10 3 lives
35 Richard Willis 12.0.0
36 William Mealy 5.2.11 1817, 3 lives renewable for 41 years
37 John Young Robert 10.12.4 1812, 3 lives or 61 years
38 Reps John Blackford 16.6.6
39 James? Ferguson 1.1.0 1812 3 lives Family probably originated in Clashadoo, Durrus
40 Sam Willis 16.0.0 1832, 99 years
41 Tim Sullivan 8.8.0 1812, 3 lives and 31 years
42 Sam Helen 1.1.0 1814, 3 lives
43 Dan Donovan 7.7.9 1824, 3 lives
44 John Clerke 8.6.2 3 lives and 31 years Post Master?
45 Ml? Sullivan 8.8.0 1791, 3 lives
46 David Kirby 4.10.0 1813, 3 lives Half pay officer?
47 Garret Barry 9.4.7 1825, 3 lives Doctor married Blair?
48 Thomas Crowley 28.13.3 1825, 3 lives and 61 years
49 Thomas Jenkins 9.4.7 1812, 3 lives and 61 years
50 John Slattery 2.2.0 1817, 3 lives
1 Charles Bant 1.1.0 1812 lives renewable
2 Sam Young 3.13.10 1817, or 137 years
3 Jas Cripps 4.4.0 1821 3 lives or 61 years
4 John Bird Junior 9.4.7 1825, 3 lives or 61 years
5 Morgan Connell 15.15.0 1812, 3 lives or 61 years
6 Robert Clarke .18.5 1746, 99 years
7 Mrs Kearney 5.10.9
8 Tim Murphy 5.10.9 1825, 3 lives
9 Arthur Hutchins 3.17.6
10 or 60? John B Corkery 10 1832, 99 years
1 Daniel Leahy 25.14.7 1786, 99 years
2 Richard White 134.8.6 1789, …..999 years
3 John Kingston 10.10. 1812, 61 years
4 Richard Clarke 6
5 Jer Donovan 21 1816, 3 lives
6 W M…..dy? 4.1 1769, 3 lives or 50 years
7 Reps MP O’Sullivan 5.10.9
8 Reps MP O’Sullivan 15.4.7 1824, 3 lives or 61 years
9 Ed Kearney? 1.1
10 or 30? John Croneen 8
1 Dr. McCarthy .18.5 1783, lives renewable for 99 years May be related to Alexander? McCarthy, Barrister, Bantry United Irishman with Surgeon O’Connor transported to Van Diemens land
2 John S(andys) Bird 7.1 Possibly John Sandys Bird
3 Jas Boyle or Burke? 1.1
4 Hayes and Harrington 1.1
5 Widow Harrington 1.2.9
6 Dl Hurley 2.2
7 Mrs. Blair 1.16.11 1783, 3 lives renewable for 99 years Of Durrus Blairs Cove family related by marrriage to Whites
8 Dan Donovan 2.17.9 1825, 3 lives
9 Tim Sullivan 1.1
20 Darby Doweny 1.1
1 William Gill 1.1 1795, 3 lives
2 Denis Harrington 1.11.6
3 Denis Sullivan 1.1
4 Dan Sullivan 3.131 1794, 3 lives
5 Margaret McCarthy 1.1
6 Young Lavers (Levis) 10.1 1812, 3 lives and 61 years
7 William Sullivan 2.2 1792, 3 lives and 61 years
8 Micahel Mahney 1.2.2 1814, 1 life or 21 years
9 Pat Murphy 1.4
90 Jer Neill 0.18.5
1 Dan Collins 1.16.11 1825, 3 lives adn 61 years
2 Tim Sullivan 1.14.
3 william Hutchinson 2.2. 1811, 3 lives
4 James Galway 1.16.11 1824, 3 lives and 61 years.
95 William Warner 1.1 1808, 1 life and 21 years Warners probably in Bantry since c 1600 elsewhere Richard White says good industrious people to be encouraged. Ancestors of Supervalue Musgarve family on female side.
6 Owen Callaghan 3.3.0 1816, 3 lives
7 John Sullivan 6.1
8 John Keogh 1.1.
9 1.10.0
100 Wiliam Young 2.1 Young family merchants, fish business in Bantry since early 1600s
101 Edward Moroney 1.1.0 1817, 3 lives renewable for 61 years
102 Thomas Young 7.7.0 1813, 3 lives renewable for 61 years
103 Richard White 0.9.3 Lives renewable
104 John Connell 5.5.0 1796 3 lives and 31 ears May be John O’Connell Esq. anti tithe repeal
105 John B. Corkery 2.2.0 1827, 3 lives
106 Michael Daly 0.9.3 1807, 3 lives
107 Mrs. Murphy 0.0.7 1808, 3 lives
108 Liutenant William Daly 0.0.11 1807, 3 lives Probably one of the 22 or so half pay officers, Post Napoleonic Wars in the Bantry area at the time on £40 p.a. Maybe one of Daly/Dealy family timber merchants and ship owners also in New Brunswick
9 Reps Smith 0.0.6
110 Thomas Sisk 0.0.11
1 James Mahony 2.2.0
2 Johh Godson 7.0.0
3 Tim Sullivan 2.2.0 1790, 3 lives
4 Tim Sullivan 3.3.10
5 Robert N(icholas) Bird 3.3.0
6 James Swanton 6.19.4 1821, 3 lives and 61 years
7 Clarke and Kingston 1.1.0 1816, 1 life or 21 years
8 P and J Gibbons 4.4.0 1808, 3 lives
9 Denis Slattery 1.1.0 1811, 3 lives
130 Mary Spenser 2.0.0
1 John S(andys) Bird 21.0.0
2 Tim Sullivan 8.8.0 1819, 3 lives or 61 years
3 Widow Ahern 1.1.0 1809, 1 life or 21 years
4 Murphy and Clerke 1.2.2
5 Ruth Barry 1.1.0
6 Richard Young 5.5.0 1825, 3 lives and 21 years
7 Richard Clarke 16.16.0 1812, 3 lives and 31 years
8 Same?? 5.1.6 1790, 3 lives
9 Robert Bird 9.9.2 1790, 3 lives
130 Richard Hoskins 0.10.6
1 Pat Murphy 0.11.1
2 Dan Murphy 0.9.3 1817, 3 lives
3 Francis Hurley 0.44.7 1796, 3 lives
4 Jehr Connor 1.1.0 1817, 3 lives
5 John Jagoe 13.6.8 1791, 3 lives or 41 years Probably fish Merchant later fishery Commissioner, Liberal Protestant, married O’Connor, father Dunmanway, mother Young of the Point fishng Family. likely store now where Maritime Hotel built.
6 Dominic Raycraft (Roycroft) 0.4.7 Probably Catholic branch of family common in Rooska.
7 Tim Sullivan 1.10.0
8 Widow Dowen??? 3.0.0
9 D and J Flynn 1.1.0
140 Richard Spenser 0.13.10 1822, 3 lives Name appears on Voter list
1 Tim Cadogan 6.6.0 1819, 3 lives
2 Dan Bryan 2.15.4 1819, 3 lives
3 Richard Clarke 0.13.10 1822, 3 lives and 61 years
4 Richard Doyle 1.1.0 1817, 3 lives and 61 years
5 Reveend Charles Smith 3.3.0 Vicar Bantry
6 Denis O’Leary 1010 1812, 3 lives and 61 years
7 Bird and Son 4.11.9 1770, 3 lives
8 James Mahony 15.15.0 1824, 3 lives and 61 years
9 William Young 20.6.2 1818, 3 lives and 31 years
150 Robert N(icholas) Bird 21.4.7 1812, renewable for 166 years
1 George Warner 1.10.0
152 Goodwin Young 12.0.0 1795, 3 lives
Total Rents 880.15.6
Tolls of the Town 150.0.0 Ancient Charter
1,030.15.6 Town fields next p. 6
Nos 153-194 Inclusive Town Fields
153 Charles McCarthy 0.12.6
154 Edmund Talbot 28.7.3
5 Young Lavers 17.3.4
6 Micahel Linehan 10.0.0
7 Same 20.0.0
8 Edward Moroney 1.7.8
9 Robert Bird 10.0.0
160 Jer. Collon 1.7.8 Collon? Cotton? The ‘Y’ are are crossed if Cotton
1 Jer Barriscale? 1.7.8
2 Dan Murphy 1.7.8
3 Tim Murphy 1.7.8
4 Corns Cnaugh 2.11.11
5 Morty Sullivan 0.18.5
6 Richard White 73.16.11
7 Ricahrd Clerke 5.10.9
8 Michael Flynn 3.13.14 1814, 1 life or 31 years
9 Jer. Sullivan 0.11.1
170 Denis Kennedy 3.0.0 1814, 1 life and 31 years
1 John Murphy 11.0.0
2 David Kirby 17.2.5 1812, 3 lives and 21years
3 John Shee 17.2.5 1812, 3 lives and 21 years
4 Philip Harrington 5.5.0 1814, 3 lives
5 Tim Sullivan 1.16.11
6 John B. Corkory 4.4.0 1789, 3 lives
7 Sam Helen 3.3.0
8 Ricahrd Clarke 3.3.0
9 Swanton? 2.6.2 1790, 3 lives
180 William Warner 1.16.11
1 Dan Collins 6.6.0
2 Edward Madden 2.15.4 1790. 3 lives and 61 years
3 Michael Sullivan 2.15.4 1790, 3 lives and 31 years May be of Hurrig family married Mary Vickery 1783 Whiddy, lived at Tedagh
4 Peter Dukelow 1.7.8 1791, 3 lives and 31 years
5 Sam Vickery 1.16.11 1810, 3 lives
6 Tim Sullivan 1.16.11 1790, 3 lives 31 years
7 John Godson 1.16.10
8 John Vickery 0.18.5 1791, 3 lives
9 Sam Vickery 0.18.5 1791, 3 lives
190 William warner 37.16.11
1 John Murphy 30.0.0
2 Robert Kenny 3-.9.3 1820, 3 lives
3 John B. Corkery 27.13.10
194 Same 9.7.10
£1,403.9.2