Coolnahorna (part of Upper Clashadoo/Gearhameen):
Carrigín Coolnahorna, Rossmore, Durrus, West Cork, a hint of Pre-famine Agriculture and other Incorporeal Hereditaments.
There is a rock on Mannions Island opposite Rossmore townland known as Carrigín Coolnahorna. It is so called as it marked the spot where farmers from Coolnahorna, in particular the O’Sullivan (late Con O’Sullivan) were entitled to take seaweed. Coolnahortna is not an official townland, it is in the North of Clashadoo upland on poor land. It was densely populated as evidenced by the addresses given in the Muintervara Catholic Church Birth Records 1818-1847, pre famine, now it is mostly used for sheep farming even the remains of the little cabins are gone.
Coolnahorna was not unique, other townlands had traditional entitlements to draw seaweeed from the shore, presumably individual farms has designated areas within that.
The use of seaweed and sea sand in the Peninsulas of West Cork and along the Western Seaboard enabled potato cultivation with the highest non urban population density (excluding mountain, bog and lake) in the world pre Famine. The population density would be similar to India and China. The use of these rights did not survive unlike other incorporeal hereditament sun as commonage.
The importance of seaweed and little islands is reflected in the sale of Landed Estate in the 1850s such as the Beecher Estate where various islands are described as important for seaweed.
In Coomkeen townland in the common area one example is that farmers in Clashadoo having an common undivided share of one seventh to use the commonage. These rights are reflected as far back as the Griffith Valuation of 1850 and are recorded in the official Folios going back the late 1890s and early 20th century. Lord Bandon sold his Durrus Estate (former McCarthy land) to the Land Commission c 1905-1910 but reserved the sporting rights over the land to himself for his lifetime.
The McCarthys moved from their Castle in Scart o the Bantry Drimoleague Road c 1620 to the new Castle at Gearhaheen quite similar to Coppinger Court.
Other rights, such as minerals were reserved by the Landlords in leases and devolved to the State where the Estates were acquired from the Landlords. Tubridy the right to save turf was an important right, again reflected in old leases or in customary practise. This is now of lesser consequence due to restrictions on extraction.
Other lease covenant in the 18th and 19th century as on the O’Donovan Estate in Tullig was the obligation of a tenant to provide a labourer and horse to the Landlord for four days a year or on the Beecher Estate to provide ‘a fat capon’ each year.
The sale of 17,000 acres on the Beecher Estate 1850 inclused Carbery isadn and the importance of the sea weed is emphasised.