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Role of Magistrate (Justice of the Peace), p. 2.

Social and Economic background, p. 8.

Penal Enactments on Papists, 1712-1772,  p. 10, 475.

Hearth Tax Collection, 1662-1793, p. 12.

Reform from 1814, p. 13.

Military magistrates, 1789-1836, p. 14.

Appointment of British Army Officers, 1821, p. 15.

1821 Census. P. 15.

1821, Dismissal of Catholic and Liberal Protestant Magistrates, p. 16.

1827, Justice for Sale, p. 16.

1827, Petty Session Courts, p. 17.

Tithe Agitation, p. 18. 

1831 Return of Magistrates. P. 19.

RIC  Recruitment, p. 20.

Daniel O’Connell criticism, p. 20.

Enforcement of Sabbath, p. 21.

Friendly Societies, p. 22.

1884, Protest Against Removal of Lord Rossmore, Grand Master Monaghan Orange Order, p. 23.

RIC Inspectors sitting on Magistrates Bench, p. 24.

1893, Davitt Magistrates,  p. 25.

Irish Speaking Magistrates, p. 26.

References in James Joyce Ulysses, p. 27.

War of Independence, Killings, Kidnappings, Big House Burnings, p. 27

Women Magistrates, p. 33.

Post 1922, p. 33.

Listing of Magistrates by surname, p. 33.

Sources, p. 460.

Finances/Probate, p. 463.

Books used 1730s, p. 474.

1884.  Listing of Cork Magistrates signing petition against removal of Lord Rossmore, p. 485.

Additional insertion on previous paper.

Official papers in Ireland are replete with the violence caused by Orange Order associated sectarian violence.  Primarily in the north counties in the early 19th century also in Bandon, Clonakilty and Dunmanway. The refusal of local Magistrates to convict those charges gave rise to an official enquiry by Dublin Castle.  There was further Orange violence in Kinsale wehn a Regiment based locally from the Northern Counties paraded on the 12th July playing party tunes outside the local Catholic Church instigating widespread violence and property damage.

The Lord Chancellor in 1857 declared against Magistrates being in the Orange Order.  Lord Chancellor Brady protested in 1864 against the Orange Order.

Lord Rossmore was dismissed by a Magistrate because of association of incitement to sectarian violence.

Magistrates from all over the Country rallied to his defence. In Cork around 147 Magistrates signed a petition, most of not all Protestant.  The backdrop is against heightened tensions the Land War was ongoing, the Nationalist Parliament Party was on the rise.  There is a listing of those Magistrates at the end of this document.

Quite a number of the Cork Magistrates also 1881 associated with Association for Prevention of Intemperance. Many had service in the British Military. Some did not appear on earlier lists and have English addresses of the other quite a number also have English addresses and it is likely that most of their time was spent there. There are  a few Irish speakers.

J. Warren Payne, Stood as Conservative in West Cork Constituency General Election 1885 got 373 (9%) of the  votes his opponent James Gilhooly, Irish Parliamentary Party got 3,920 votes (91%). 

It is difficult to say how many Magistrates were in Cork in 1884. In 1831 there were 340 of whom 49 were Church of Ireland clergymen.  The Clerk of the Crown and Peace James Chatterton was unable to give a definitive figure as the Clerk of the Hanaper in the Four Court no longer alerted him  of new appointments by the Lord Chancellor. In Guys Directory of 1907 around 580 are listed with a new category 34 Local Government Magistrates. It is likely that by the 1890s there was a significant addition to accommodate appointments sought by the Irish Parliamentary Party.

A detailed look at those who signed the petition suggest that behind the apparent affluence those whose estates were probated were very often of very modest means.  Their genealogies where available somewhat surprisingly show a significant descent from old Gelic and Norman families. This is not immediately apparent as the Magistrates are mostly Potestant and the name disguised maternal and further antecedents.

In some way this petition was one of the last horays of the old regime. By 1825 it is likely the economic power in Cork had passed to the Catholics. As the century progressed the expansion of the franchise and electoral reform meant that most of the Southern Counties  local administration and Parliamentary Representation was controlled by nationalists. 

The last bastion, the Grand Jury was nominally controlled by the Jurors selected from the ranks of Landlords and Magistrates  However in reality it has an efficient administration which passed seamlessly to the new County Council in 1899. From then on the elected  County and City Councillors replaced the role of the Grand Jury.

In England Magistrates administer the Law based and community consensus. During the War of Independence in Ireland the Magistrates were told  to resign their Commission by Dáil Eireann. For those that continued they were perceived as the henchmen of an alien administration and subjected to killings, kidnapping, violence and house burnings.