1846. Subscribers to Projected Railway (Probably to Skibbereen), Francis Roycroft, Accountant, €2,500, John Shannon, Accountant, £2,500, Thomas Attridge, £3,250, Dealer all Ballydehob, Daniel Donovan, M.D., Skibbereen, £2,500.
650 Men Working Night and Day to Open Skibbereen Railway. Along the line Large Numbers of Rustics Lined Up to See the First Train.
The Right Honourable Earl of Bandon, Patron and Honorary Director of the Steam Carriage and Wagon Company for The Conveyance of Goods and passengers Throughout Ireland Upon Common Roads.
1830, Subscribers to Robert O’Callaghan Newenham’s, (25 years Superintendent Barracks Department of Ireland), Picturesque Views of the Antiquities of Ireland. 1845 Promoter of Projected Bandon to Bantry Railway
1890, Will of Denis Murphy, Builder, Bantry, Builder of Bantry Pier, Father of William Martin Murphy. 1919, William Martin Murphy, Derrymihan, Beara and Dublin, businessman. Estate £250,000. He left a range of businesses with a substantial asset value, including Dublin’s tramway system, hotels in Dublin and Glengariff, Cleary’s Department store, a range of railway shares and various properties including a builders yard in Bantry (which is still in business). He had also invested heavily in the Dublin newspaper industry.
The Marmins of Skibbereen originate as Normans from around Dundalk. One branch of the family converted to the Church of Ireland anc came to Skibbereen around 1740 to manage the Beecher Estates. From that time on they are very prominent locally
They had a significant coaching establishment as did the Galweys of Skibbeeen and Thomas Vickey of Bantry. The Phillips of Durrus ran a smaller operation and the carriages wee in their yard up to the 1960s. LIke the Marmios they overwintered theri horses n the islands of Dunmanus Bay
Philip Henry Oliver Marmion, (1874-1935), Skibbereen, Vet trained in Scotland. Married Bridget O’Sullivan, who ran a business Catholic and he converted. She died in 1956. West Carbery Hunt owned racehorse ‘Xylophone’. May be father of Reginald, electrical engineer, killed following accident at Ardnacrusha Electrical Station 1935.
Richard Henry (Henry R.) Marmion, (1812-1873), 1869, Rineen, Castletownshend, Skibbereen, Resident, £150, m Grace Elizabeth d Herbert Moore, Tipperary, runs coaching business with brother, agent Townsend and local estates. 1851 signed Skibbereen ‘No Popery’ petition. His father ran vessels which rendered good service during the Famine. 1851 promoter of the Railway to Skibbereen. Marmions came from Dundalk c1740s as agents to Beecher Estates. Father ran shipping vessels during famine giving relief, listed 1886-6. Subscriber Dr. Daniel Donovan ‘History of Carbery, (5 copies) 1876. Well regarded locally. Clerk of the Union 1855-59, Chairman of Board of Guardians. A Liberal associate of solicitor and MP Mccarthy Downing, and later supported Home Rule. Old Norman family, Dundalk area, migrated to Skibbereen to manage Beecher estate c 1730. His son Philip Henry, a vet who had a famous racehorse Xylophone won the Northumberland Plate.
Thomas Henry Marmion, J.P. Waterford, (1839-1921), born Coronea, Skibbereen, ed Kingston School, Dublin, Queens College Cork, Civil Engineer, m 1. Sarah Hungerford, Skibbereen, edo H. Hungerford, 2. Alice Gertrude d of his first cousin Canon Richard Walter Marmion, Treasurer, dioceses Ross. Active in local affairs including Church of Ireland Dioceses. Executor to his father’s estate Thomas Henry 1880, £100.
Census 1831, At Bandon Special Session of Between 50 and 60 Magistrates. 43 Enumerators Appointed for Cork West Riding.
1821 Census and Statistical Returns
In the Chief Secretary papers there are frequent references to the 1821 census and the poor pay of the enumerators and the supervising role of the Magistrates. In 1821 the procedure required by new legislation was for the Magistrates at Quarter Session, advised by the Co. Law Officer to arrange for the taking of the census. There are also a number of references to the Magistrates making statistical returns but it is not clear what these are.
For the period 1818-1823 there were in excess of 1,700 references to the Magistrates. Many are supporting petitioners for public employment.
Census 1831, At Bandon Special Session of Between 50 and 60 Magistrates. 43 Enumerators were Appointed for Cork West Riding. A gathering of 70 Magistrates of the East Riding resulted in 94 enumerators being appointed
1844, Petty Session Courts with James Little, Resident Magistrate (RM), and Local Magistrates Listed, Bantry, Carrigboy (Durrus), Castletownbere, Clonakilty, Dunmanway, Goleen, Remineen (Beara/Glengarriff), West Division, West Cork.
1844 a series of reforms had resulted in the establishment of the Petty Session Courts, presided over by a Resident Magistrate. He did not have to be legally qualified, many were former British Army Officers. or RIC District Inspectors. He was assisted by at least two local Magistrates or Justices of the Peace and the hearing were conducted in Courthouses., the Clerk of Petty Session played a pivotal role.
Formerly the local Magistrates held court often in their own houses, giving a perception of the partial and sectarian administration of justice.
In this listing, the only Church of Ireland clergymen shown are the Rev Alleyn Evanson of Durrus Court, Gearhameen, Durrus. At this stage he was an ‘beneficed clergyman’ not practising but a land agent and middleman. The Rev. Richard Wright, of Skibbereen was also a land agent.
Earlier there would have been very significant presence of ministers representing the then Irish State Church.
Alexis de Tocqueville 1835 On Irish Assizes, Grand Juries, Magistrates. 1834 West Cork Baronial Cess Payer Representatives.
Remains of Protestant Denomination in Cork
A frequent narrative is the imposition of a server yok by Irish protestanr on the Catholic who vastly outnumber them. In the Case of Cork city he says that in 1835 there were 80,000 Catholics out of a population of 107,000. All the officers of the Corporation are Protestants.
The Corporation names the Sheriff who names the Grand Jury in which there were only two Catholics on the Grand Jury.
In the County the Sheriff is obliged to select two jurors from each Barony.
The session of the Grand Jury was in public, a recent innovation that had the effect of reducing presentment of little public interest but favouring Landlords.
Another change he did not mention was setting up a panel of Cess players for each Barony who would be involved in the quarterly presentation to approve local works. Those approved would then go to the Grand Jury for approval. Those on the panel would typically be large Catholic and Protestatn farmers.
It is reported to him that in the entire country there is no Catholic Judge.
He makes frequent reference to the Criminal Assized he attends at the frequent use of informers. As a lawyer he objects as it saves a guilty man and provides a premium for false testimony.
In criminal cases in contrast to France he is amazed at the rapidity of trials. The same man is often induced by the Grand Jury, found guilty by the Petty Jury and Condemned by the Judge in the course of an hour.
He also refers to the Court allowing policemen to tell the court of admission made to them by the accused.
There are a number of references to the Penal Laws excluding Catholic from owning property until 1782. He frequently mentions that this has resulted in ambitious Catholic amassing vast fortunes. In some rence tcse thy enter the land market and as Landlord seem as bad as the Protestants
He makes a number of references to the thirst for education among the poorest of the poor
1834. NAMES and PLACES of RESIDENCE of the CESS PAYERS nominated by the County Grand Jury at the last Assizes, to be associated with the Magistrates at Special Road Sessions to be holden in and for the several Baronies within the County, preparatory to the next Assizes, pursuant to Act 3 and 4 Wm. 4, ch. 78.
Barony of Bere
John O’Sullivan Cameatringane
David Kinnigan, Bawn
Edward Puxley, Oaklodge
James Downing, Castletown
Daniel Sullivan, Dramguiven
Roger O’Sullivan, Seapoint
John Harrington, Killmacowen
Timothy O’Sullivan, Connahanavoe
Richard Martin, Clonee
John Harrington, Grenane
Timothy O’Sullivan, Castletown
William Murphy, Inchintaglin, Adrigole
William Trenwith, Droumdir
Timothy O’Sullivan, Castletown
Barony of Bantry
William O’Sullivan Carriganass, Kealkil
Michael Sullivan, Droumlickeerue
John O’Connell, Bantry
Richard Levis, Rooska
William Pearson, Droumclough, Bantry
Daniel O’Sullivan, Reedonegan
Jeremiah O’Sullivan, Droumadureen
John Cotter, Lisheens, Ballylickey
James Vickery, Mullagh, Bantry
Rev. Henry Sadler, The Glebe
John Godson, Bantry
Richard Pattison, Cappanabowl, Bantry
John Kingston, Bantry
Samuel Vickery, Franchagh (Franahana), Whiddy Island
John Sandy Bird. Cess payer representative. North St., Bantry. Signed 1833 Memorial to departing CAPTAIN JONES, LATE IN COMMAND OF A DETACHMENT OF THE 69TH REGT., STATIONED AT Bantry. 1838 Address to John S. Bird, on Retiring as Treasurer of Bantry Dispensary he owned the premises from which it operated, report later scathing on operation of dispensary.
John Brian Corkery, farmer, businessman, Snave, Bantry, 1825 subscriber to Father Quin, Durrus church building. In multiple deeds as witness 1820s. Mr. Corkerry and Mr. O’ Connell – two prominent merchants of the eighteenth century? I wonder where they were? It might have been somewhere about the Mills by the Quays as they are commented on as having big businesses on the way into town by an antiquarian travel writer. Cess payer representative 1834. Lewis comments on his large stores. Voting for Daniel O’Connell as £50 leaseholder 1841 Cork Election. 1841 unable to attend business transferred several properties in trust to John Barry, Bantry and Rev. Christopher Freeman for the benefit of his wife Anne and daughter Margaret and sons Patrick and Daniel.
John Cotter, Lisheens, Ballylickey, tithe applotments 60 and 67 acres, £70. 1832 Grand Jury contractor. 1841 Cork election tendered for Consevative candidates Leader and Longfield objected to but allowed.
Samuel Daly/Dealy, Droumkeal. Cess payer representative, Vote in 1841 election based on £10 freehold at Droumkeal for Longfield and leader. No related to Kilcrohane Dalys possibly a branch of influential Daly /Gore family of Dunsandle east Galway. May be brother of Mary Dealy who married William Hutchinson 1814 of Durrus Landlord family. Extended family, Royal Navy, timber merchants on return boast of St. Johns, New Brunswick emigrants from Bantry. Family members in St. Johns Customs service and fishery protection. Juror Bantry Quarter Sessions 1863.
James Downing, Castletown. Cess payer representative, subscriber Bere Island Catholic Church 1843
Charles Dukelow, Carrigboy (Durrus).Father Quin’s (PP Durrus) application for national School, 16th November 1830 ED1/13/74/2, signed by for Roman Catholics Richard O’Donovan, Timothy O’Donovan, Richard Tobin, Edmond Tobin, Daniel Daly, Richard O’Donovan, John Murphy, John Carthy, Thomas Cormack?, Elias Roycroft, Andrew Caverly, Richard Caverly, Protestants E. Evanson, Richard L. Blair, Thomas Ferguson (Clashadoo), Thomas Duklow (Clashadoo), Charles Ducklow, John Ducklow. Rev Alcock of the Church of Ireland was asked to consent but declined but his parishioners signed. He is listed as a Cess Payer for the Barony of West Carbery in 1834 with other locals including Rev. Edward Alcock of Clashadoo and William Vickery of Ballycomane. This nomination was by the County Grand Jury to sit with Magistrates on road presentments. Probably the Charles Dukelow listed tithe applotments 1830 for Rusheenaniska one of the largest farms in the district.
Alexander Evans, Lisangle, Caheragh, Cess payer representative,
John Godson, Newtown. Cess payer representative. In 1749 Richard White leased 4 gneeves to an ancestor John Godson at Brennybeg, Kealkil. Extended family included Fergusons of Durrus, Cripps of Dunmanway. Tithe applotments 17 acres £25 and Bantry properties. Juror Bantry Quarter Sessions 1863.
John Harrington, Killmacowen, Beara, Cess payer representative, may be 1841 election Cork, Shandrum, Bantry tendered for O’Connell and Roche allowed.
John KIngston, Cess payer representative, Juror Bantry Quarter Sessions 1863.
Richard Levis (Lavers), Rooska, cess payer rep. May be the same 1801. Avis Notter, spinster, Crookhaven, leases to Richard Lavers (Levis), Clonee, 8 Gneeves at West Clonee, Kealties, Esknabreena (North West Brahalish) and Oghtergliny? For 21 years. Witnesses John Warner, Gent, Bantry, Samuel Helen, Gent, Bantry Witness 1809 deed as Gent. Levis/Jogoe/Long. 1823 William Pearson, also cess payer rep. witness in assignment of rent charge by Richard Levis, Rooska. 1823 assigned rent charge over Rooska lands to cover debt to Barnaby Deane, Dunmanway. 1824 leased 10 gneeves at Rooska from Simon White witness, William Pearson, Gent., Dromclough. 1830 tithe applotments fist lot 54 acres, £50, 2nd lot 18 acres £22. Donor 1826 Catholic Churches Durrus.
Denis Lehane, Trenmadry, Cess payer representative. 1841 election named as Denis Linehan, £20 freeholder, Trenamadaree, voted for O’Connell and Roche.
Richard Martin, Clonee (Cluin, Adrigole?), Cess payer representative. 17th of August 1817 Richard son of Richard Martin and Grace his wife was baptised sponsors Edward Puxley Esq., Captain John Reed of the Mines and Anne Bawden. 1819 Lovetray daughter of Richard Martin and Grace his wife sponsors Edward Puxley, Bess Puxley and Fanny Puxley. Sarah Jane, daughter of John and Margaret Grimston born April 10th 1846, baptised April 22nd 1846 publically, sponsors, Richard Martin, Bessy Sugrue, Annie Phillips, Thomas O’Grady, Rector, A. Hallowell, curate. Probably related to Captain Martin of Allihies Mines.
James McCarthy, Ballydevlin, Goleen. Cess payer representative. May be joint Commissioner to assess tithes in Parish of Kilmoe with Florence McCarthy, £500 undivided and payable to Rev. Francis Langford, Rector.
David Mellifont, Cess payer representative, first drawn, family of Norman origin Kinsale some conform, middle men on Kenmare estate, later attorney Dunmanway. Related to Galway family who are agents to Kenmare Estate.
William Murphy, Adrigole, Cess payer representative, Vote in 1841 election based on £20 freehold at Kilcaskin, Inchintaglin and Dromlane. The name appears 1856 as a Grand Jury Contractor.
John O’Connell. Cess payer representative, 1834, Grand Jury, New Annual Contract: Patrick O’Sullivan, Earl of Bantry, Simon White, John O’Connell to keep in repair for three years, road from Bantry to Castletown between post office at Castletown and Droumgoulane bridge, £90 annually. Signed 1833 Memorial to departing CAPTAIN JONES, LATE IN COMMAND OF A DETACHMENT OF THE 69TH REGT., STATIONED AT Bantry
Daniel O’Sullivan Esq., Reendonegan. 1822 Pigott, Gent. Cess payer representative, Pigot 1824. Paid up Bantry Member Catholic Association 1825. In 1794 Timothy O’Donovan. A Landlord of the Ardahill, Kilcrohane, branch was born and married Mary daughter of Daniel O’Sullivan of Reendonegan House, Bantry and Hanora O’Connell. She was the aunt of Daniel O’Connell who secured Catholic Emancipation in 1828. Signed 1833 Memorial to departing CAPTAIN JONES, LATE IN COMMAND OF A DETACHMENT OF THE 69TH REGT., STATIONED AT Bantry. Cess payer representative, Barony of Beara 1834. Vote in 1841 election based on £50 freehold at Farrannamagh, Kilcrohane.
Jeremiah O’Sullivan, Droumadureen. Cess payer representative. Signed 1833Memorial to departing CAPTAIN JONES, LATE IN COMMAND OF A DETACHMENT OF THE 69TH REGT., STATIONED AT Bantry
John O’Sullivan, Cametringane, Berehaven. Cess payer representative, attending Great Meeting re Poor Law in 1840, Bantry. Married 1833 Mary Ann only daughter of Herbert Baldwin. Father of Herbert Baldwin O’Sullivan, JP 1863, Clonilla House, Macroom. Possible brother of Patrick O’Sullivan, Millcove, Seneschal to Lord Bantry.
Roger O’Sullivan Cess payer representative. 1827 Commissioner with John Lavellan Puxley to determine tithes of parish of Kilnamanagh. Associate of Patrick O’Sullivan whose evidence to a Parliamentary Enquiry into the Cork election and its widespread violence of 1841 comes across as a Chieftain of his area. Usually he brought tenants and middlemen to Cork via Bantry in his sloop. Except for Roger O’Sullivan and Symms both Protestants who was married to a Sullivan they were Catholic and normally would have voted for the Liberal/O’Connell interest. However they all voted Conservative Longfield/Leader, the suggestion in the questioning that he had used undue influence to please Lord Bantry which he rejected. KILACONENAGH – Lewis’ Topographical Dictionary 1837 – a parish, in the barony of BERE. The principal seats include Sea-point, of R. O’Sullivan, Esq.
William O’Sullivan Esq., Carriganass Castle.
Gave evidence to 1844 Commission Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland. Witnesses at Bantry (Rev Christopher Freeman Curate, Richard White Esq. Landlord, Michael Murphy Miller Middleman Donemark, William Neale, Rev. Somers Payne, Land Agent, John O’Connell Esq., Rev. Thomas Barry Parish Priest, Samuel Hutchins Esq. Landlord, Alexander Donovan, Patrick Tobin Farmer Gortavallig Kilcrohane, Timothy Connor, Cornelius Connor, Cornelius Henry Donovan, into Her Majesty’s Commissioners into The Law and Practice of Occupation of Land in Ireland.
Lease of Ahiel where he was born and in the family for 100 years from Lord Kenmare not renewed in 1840. Has 500 to 600 acres employs a great number of men.
William O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass Castle, native Ahill. Game Certificate 1802. 1804 Extract from deed: Partial assignment by Eugene Sullivan, Ballhadown, Caheragh to William Sullivan, Gent., Ahill, (Later Carriganass Castle), of 6 Gneeves of North Sheehy, among lives Daniel Roycroft, aged 7 son of Richard Roycroft, Rooska.
Purchased Carriganass from David Mellifont, Donemark in 1817 for £250 and £50 rent previously had been tenant with Maurice Flynn. Hamilton White had left, in his will, cash sums to Richard Blair Esq., Galway (nephew from Blairs Cove, Durrus), who had received various lands in lieu. By this deed Blair assigned these lands to William O’Sullivan, Carriganass in 1822. 1825 took assignment from Godwin Young, hatter Cork (from Bantry) of debt owing 1807, judgement, by Simon White, Glengarriff Castle.
Has 500-600 acres from Kenmare Estate. Subscriber 1832 Bantry poor Relief. Decried by Assistant Magistrate for rapacious behaviour toward tenants ‘God help the tenants of the Country with Such landlords’. Enduring bad feeling with McCarthy Downing Skibbereen Solicitor. Accused of being agent to Sir William Draper. Son William Junior probably TCD admissions 1834, aged 16 educated Dr. Hamblin, Cork, William called to the Bar 1844. Signed Testimonial to Resident Magistrate, John Gore Jones, Bantry, 1844. In 1848 seizing cattle at Scart, Bantry for alleged overdue rent to his father with Daniel, John and Cornelius Manning and Eugene and Stephen Sullivan he was imprisoned for 3 months and fined £20 for assault. Son, William, Barrister, made a Magistrate 1850 on recommendation of Earl of Bandon superseded after two days. Prosecuted in Cork for criminal libel. Daughter married Barrett who took over the estate. According to John Windle he contemplated the restoration of Carriganass Castle. Brother Jeremiah in Brennymore, Kealkil his daughter married Portuguese Captain Jose Biaia later resident in Kealkil. 1854 large farm at Kilcrea with quarry to let apply William O’Sullivan or Daniel O’Sullivan, Church St., Cork. Complained that in 1840 his lease of Ards (2 very large farms 3 miles inland) was not renewed by Lord Kenmare. This lease commences in 1756 between William Sullivan, an attorney who married the daughter of Rev. Schofield who had the lands. The lives in a lease for three lives of Richard Cox, son of the Archbishop of Cashel, and Richard and George sons of Sir Richard Cox of Dunmanway at a rent of £52. Grandson QUILL, Albert William, in occupation pre 1908. He has dealings with Eugene O’Sullivan, of Ballaghadown Caheragh, a Protestant, Church Warden, Drimoleague and who sells an interest in Caha lands rented from Shouldham Estate. There may be a relationship as William O’Sullivan acquired part of Hutchinson’s lands at Durrus it is likely that Hugh Hutchinson who died young 1804 wife Margaret O’Sullivan was a sister of Eugene O’Sullivan.
William Pearson, Droumclough, Cess payer representative. 1823 witness in assignment of rent charge by Richard Levis, Rooska, also cess payer rep. 1824. Rent charge granted to him by Simon White, Gent. over lands at Droumclough, Bantry tenant William Pearson, consented to assignment of this by White to Godwin Young, hatter, Cork. Richard Levis (Lavers), Rooska, cess payer rep. 1824 leased 10 gneeves at Rooska from Simon White witness, William Pearson, Gent., Dromclough. Possible church warden, Bantry, 1827. 1829, Kilmacanogue Tithe Applotment (Partial) Index, 20th Sept., 1829, Wm. Pearson & Jeremiah Donovan, Commissioner. 1830 at Dromclough in tithe applotments has 110 acres value £120. 1833 thanks to Captain Jones. Tithe Aplotter, Durrus and Kilcrohane had to swear he had property worth at least £1,000 sworn before Timothy O’Donovan, Magistrate, O’Donovan’s Cove, Durrus.
1829 joint valuer with Jeremiah Donovan of those rectorial tithes at Kilmocomoge to which Rev. Henry Sadlier was entitled £625 and Alexander O’Driscoll Esq., £475 was entitled. 1831 joint valuer with Jeremiah Donovan of those tithes at Kilmocomoge to which Nathaniel Evanson Esq., Durrus was entitled to mostly on Hutchinson Estate. 1832 Grand Jury contractor.
William Pearson, Cahirdaniel, Bantry, Cess payer representative,
Edward Puxley, (1756-1840), Oaklodge, Castletownbere, subscriber Lewis 1837. Cess payer representative, Lloyd’s agent 1837. 1824, James son of Mark Reed and his wife of Allihies Mine sponsors Edward Puxley, Captain John Reed and his wife. 1835 Francis Spring, Commissioner to applott tithes in the parish of Killocanenagh certified Composition of £200 to Edwad Puxley, Esq, lessee of impropriator.1840, 10 January buried 13th Mr. Edward Puxley of Oak Lodge aged 84 years.
Rev. Edward Sadlier,Henry Sadler, 1791, may be father of Richard, TCD, 1796, aged 16 father merchant. May be Rev. Henry Sadlier, Rector Bantry. Richard Hull Son Richard Edward, died 1836 at the Glebe, Bantry of Rev. Henry Sadlier. Listed supporter of Act of Union, 1799. William Pearson 1829 joint valuer with Jeremiah Donovan of those rectorial tithes at Kilmocomoge to which Rev. Henry Sadlier was entitled £625 and Alexander O’Driscoll Esq., £475 was entitled. 1834 Cess payer representative, barony of Bantry. Ran educational academy. Signed 1833 Memorial to departing CAPTAIN JONES, LATE IN COMMAND OF A DETACHMENT OF THE 69TH REGT., STATIONED AT Bantry.
William Trenwith, Cess payer representative, probably of Faha may be man alleged to have had 23 daughters. Family appears in 1659 census at Gurteen, Thomas Trenwith though a Protestant allied to O’Sullivan against Puxleys in 1732 proclaimed an outlaw £100 offered for his capture. Middlemen of White and possibly Kenmare Estate. Of extended family Richard a butter buyer/inspector and property owner in Cork, Emanuel, linen draper Cork. Intermarried with Helens, pawnbrokers of Bantry and Cork, O’Sullivans of Tedagh, O’Sullivans of Beara, Wards of Moulivard, Durrus among others. 1831 surety for Robert Clarke, postmaster, Bantry with Young Lavers (Levis)
James Vickery (1760-1842), Mollock, Parish of Durrus, Cess payer representative. According to family lore a wild man in is early years converted and became a leading light in Methodism in Bantry. Married 1790, Ellen Warner, Upper Gurteen, (1776-1837), described as ‘Gent’. in marriage settlement The Methodist preacher Rev John Rogers stayed with James in Rooska in July 1803 coming from Gorey and preached there and the next day in Bantry. At Dunbittern at William Vickery’s ‘there were no people to hear’ and he then preached twice and spent the night in John Skuce from his unpublished diaries M.E. Haskins. Looked after his grandson and his sister 1830s where their parents died of cholera in Skibbereen. His grandson James Stanley Vickery (1829-1911) became a successful businessman in Australia and wrote a memoir of his time with his grandparents. His son in law Samuel Levis, a cess payer representative, tithe proctor, Baronia Constable successful businessman Skibbereen, Glenview.
William Vickery, Rooska, Cess payer representative, freehold 1829 – APPLICATIONS FOR THE REGISTERING OF FREEHOLDS BARONY OF BANTRY,
Buried Garryvucha, Bantry.
Robert Vickery, tithe aplottmens 48 aces, £41.
Samuel Vickery, Moved 1840 to Reendesert, emigrated 1850 with most of his family to Evnsville, Indiana, USA. His son Samuel reminiscences.
William Vickery, Franchagh, Whiddy Island, Cess payer representative. Tithe applotment 50 acres, £32.
William Warren (Warner) Reendesert, tithe applotments 20 acres, £20. John and William Warner repairing bridge on road from Bantry to Macroom, £25, Grand Jury.
William Warner, Reendesrert, 20 shillings, freehold 1829 – APPLICATIONS FOR THE REGISTERING OF FREEHOLDS BARONY OF BANTRY, 1841 election tendered for Longfield and Leader as £20 freeholder.
Renmeen (Glengariff) Sessions for Barony of Bere
Daniel Sullivan, first drawn
Collector of Baronial Cess:
Patrick O’Sullivan, sureties, Jeremiah O’Sullivan, Denis O’Sullivan. Paid premiums for collecting county cess on last assizes £20.
1834 Bantry: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Bantry:
David Mellifont, first drawn, family of Norman origin Kinsale some conform, middle men on Kenmare estate, later attorney Dunmanway. Related to Galway family who are agent to Kenmare Estate.
1834 Collector of Public Cess:
Patrick O’Sullivan, Collector of Public Cess (dismissed amid allegations of fraud c 1842), sureties Daniel F. Leahy and Rev. Somers Payne. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £21.
Same as Barony of Bere. Patrick O’Sullivan, Collector of Public Cess (dismissed amid allegations of fraud c 1842), sureties Daniel F. Leahy and Denis O’Sullivan. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £33.
Kinsale: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Kinsale:
John Walton (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
Samuel Heard, Collector of Public Cess, sureties John G. Daunt and Robert Lander. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £23.
Reenmeen (Glengariff): Presentment Sessions for Barony of Beer (as spelled):
Adjourned to Bantry
William Murphy, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
Patrick O’Sullivan, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Daniel F. Leahy and Denis O’Sullivan. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £22.
Bantry: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Bantry:
William Pearson, (Selected)
Timothy B. Minihane
Richard Lavers (Levis)
Collector of Public Cess:
Same as Barony of Bere. Patrick O’Sullivan, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Daniel F. Leahy and Denis O’Sullivan. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £33.
Clonakilty: Presentment Sessions for East Division East Barony of Carbery:
Major Scott, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
John James Moloney, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Albert Callanan M.D. and Rickard Donovan Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £66.
Clonakilty: Presentment Sessions for West Division East Barony of Carbery:
Adjourned To Rosscarbery:
Herbert Gillman, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
William Smyth, Collector of Public Cess, sureties William J. Bleazby and Thomas W. Cahill. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £75.
Skibbereen: Presentment Sessions for East Division West Barony of Carbery:
Alleyn Beamish, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
Samuel Levis, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Thomas Somerville and Thomas J. Hungerford. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £85.
Ballydehob: Presentment Sessions for West Division West Barony of Carbery:
Adjourned to Bantry
William Long, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
William Swanton, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Samuel Levis (road contractor) and Gibbs Ross (road contractor). Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £65.
Ballinspittle: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Courceys:
James B. Gibbons, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
Benjamin J. Gillman, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Richard Gillman and HIll Gillman. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £15.
Timoleague: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Ibane and Barryroe:
Thomas Lucas, Esq.,Chairman
Richard B. Robinson, Esq.,
Nicholas M. Cummins, Junior, Esq.
Daniel Gallwey, (Selected)
Adjourned to Clonakilty
Collector of Public Cess:
John James Moloney, Collector of Public Cess, sureties Albert Callanan, M.D. and Rickard Donovan. Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £43.
Bandon: Presentment Sessions for Barony of Kinnalmeaky:
Henry Herrick, (Selected)
Collector of Public Cess:
James Halnan, Collector of Public Cess, Thomas Poole sureties and Jeremiah Halnan Premium on collection of Cess since last Assizes, (half year), £39.
David Mellifont, Bantry Cess payer. Had lands at Donemark rented from Kenmare estate. Family of Norman origin Kinsale some conform, middle men on Kenmare estate, later attorney Dunmanway. Related to Galway family who are agents to Kenmare Estate.
In the 18th and 19th century public works were carried out under the presentment system, a list of works was approved by Magistrates sitting twice a year in each Barony and went forward to the Grand Jury at the twice yearly Assizes in Cork. The funding was by the cess about 12% of rent collected by Baronial Constables who received a proportion of the yield.
In this Barony of Bere if anyone had information of those highlighted I would appreciate feedback By 1830 due to allegations of widespread abuse by landlords the system was modified to include local cess payers were consulted at the Presentment sessions. So far they have largely been under the radar but they are people of major local influence. In West Cork they comprise a class of large farmer Cathlic d Protestants who often have links to the Grand Jury contractors.
1834. NAMES and PLACES of RESIDENCE of the CESS PAYERS nominated by the County Grand Jury at the last Assizes, to be associated with the Magistrates at Special Road Sessions to be holden in and for the several Baronies within the County, preparatory to the next Assizes, pursuant to Act 3 and 4 Wm. 4, ch. 78.
The Estate was sold in the Landed Estates Court in 1854 probably bought by William O’Sullivan, Esq., later his son in law John Barrett is owner. He was conservative lining up with the Lord Bantry/White family their agents the Paynes and various branches of the O’Sullivans off Beara. He came i for praise from Father Kearney Parish Priest of Durrus around 1892. Father keanrey sasi weh a young curate house were largely mud huts on the Hutchinson land. Father Kearney said that due to Mr. Barrett’s efforts they had been replaced by slated houses. Barrett was regularly slated by the Nationalist faction for evictions etc.
William O’Sullivan Esq., Carriganass Castle.
Gave evidence to 1844 Commission Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland. Witnesses at Bantry (Rev Christopher Freeman Curate, Richard White Esq. Landlord, Michael Murphy Miller Middleman Donemark, William Neale, Rev. Somers Payne, Land Agent, John O’Connell Esq., Rev. Thomas Barry Parish Priest, Samuel Hutchins Esq. Landlord, Alexander Donovan, Patrick Tobin Farmer Gortavallig Kilcrohane, Timothy Connor, Cornelius Connor, Cornelius Henry Donovan, into Her Majesty’s Commissioners into The Law and Practice of Occupation of Land in Ireland. Lease of Ahiel where he was born and in the family for 100 years from Lord Kenmare not renewed in 1840. Has 500 to 600 acres employs a great number of men. William O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass Castle, native Ahill. Game Certificate 1802. 1804 Extract from deed: Partial assignment by Eugene Sullivan, Ballhadown, Caheragh to William Sullivan, Gent., Ahill, (Later Carriganass Castle), of 6 Gneeves of North Sheehy, among lives Daniel Roycroft, aged 7 son of Richard Roycroft, Rooska. Purchased Carriganass from David Mellifont, Donemark in 1817 for £250 and £50 rent previously had been tenant with Maurice Flynn. Hamilton White had left, in his will, cash sums to Richard Blair Esq., Galway (nephew from Blairs Cove, Durrus), who had received various lands in lieu. By this deed Blair assigned these lands to William O’Sullivan, Carriganass in 1822. 1825 took assignment from Godwin Young, hatter Cork (from Bantry) of debt owing 1807, judgement, by Simon White, Glengarriff Castle. Has 500-600 acres from Kenmare Estate. Subscriber 1832 Bantry poor Relief. Decried by Assistant Magistrate for rapacious behaviour toward tenants ‘God help the tenants of the Country with Such landlords’. Enduring bad feeling with McCarthy Downing Skibbereen Solicitor. Accused of being agent to Sir William Draper. Son William Junior probably TCD admissions 1834, aged 16 educated Dr. Hamblin, Cork, William called to the Bar 1844. Signed Testimonial to Resident Magistrate, John Gore Jones, Bantry, 1844. Witness in 1844 Jagoe V Hungerford referred to counsel as moneylender. 1839 acquired an interest in Hutchinson Estate The Estate was sold in the Landed Estates Court in 1854 probably bought by William O’Sullivan, Esq., later his son in law John Barrett is owner. He was conservative lining up with the Lord Bantry/White family, their agents the Paynes and various branches of the O’Sullivans off Beara. He (Barrett) came in for praise from Father Kearney, Parish Priest of Durrus around 1892. Father kearney sasi weh a young curate house were largely mud huts on the Hutchinson land. Father Kearney said that due to Mr. Barrett’s efforts they had been replaced by slated houses. Barrett was regularly slated by the Nationalist faction for evictions etc. . In 1848 seizing cattle at Scart, Bantry for alleged overdue rent to his father with Daniel, John and Cornelius Manning and Eugene and Stephen Sullivan he was imprisoned for 3 months and fined £20 for assault. Son, William, Barrister, made a Magistrate 1850 on recommendation of Earl of Bandon superseded after two days. Prosecuted in Cork for criminal libel. Daughter married Barrett who took over the estate. According to John Windle he contemplated the restoration of Carriganass Castle. Brother Jeremiah in Brennymore, Kealkil his daughter married Portuguese Captain Jose Biaia later resident in Kealkil. 1854 large farm at Kilcrea with quarry to let apply William O’Sullivan or Daniel O’Sullivan, Church St., Cork. Complained that in 1840 his lease of Ards (2 very large farms 3 miles inland) was not renewed by Lord Kenmare. This lease commences in 1756 between William Sullivan, an attorney who married the daughter of Rev. Schofield who had the lands. The lives in a lease for three lives of Richard Cox, son of the Archbishop of Cashel, and Richard and George sons of Sir Richard Cox of Dunmanway at a rent of £52. Grandson QUILL, Albert William, in occupation pre 1908. He has dealings with Eugene O’Sullivan, of Ballaghadown Caheragh, a Protestant, Church Warden, Drimoleague and who sells an interest in Caha lands rented from Shouldham Estate. There may be a relationship as William O’Sullivan acquired part of Hutchinson’s lands at Durrus it is likely that Hugh Hutchinson who died young 1804 wife Margaret O’Sullivan was a sister of Eugene O’Sullivan. Rev. Somers Payne, Upton, Innishannon. Gave evidence to 1844 Commission Law and practice in res
In 1912, Willie’s cousins, Herbert & Tommie Vickery, sons of George J. Vickery, of Vickery’s Hardware Shop,opened a motor repair garage behind the hotel. As they were Ford dealers, they needed a showroom on the street. This was in the new hotel building between the front door and the archway, with petrol pumps on the footpath. The hotel was used by the Cork Ford Company for regional meetings and Henry Ford, his wife Clara and daughter stayed in the hotel on the night of the 10th August 1912.
Corktown, Detroit, Michigan being Revitalised by Henry Ford The Third.
Noel O’Sullivan a porter in 1940 wrote that he remembered opening the door for the then, Taoiseach, Eamon de Valera; General Tom Barry; Dan Breen, Eoin O’Neill, Dr Noel Browne, the singer Delia Murphy and actresses Kathleen Ryan and Hermione Badderly. In 1961, during the making of the film “I Thank a Fool” on the Mizen Head Peter Finch stayed with his wife Yolande. Susan Hayward and Diane Cliento who were starring in the same film were regular clients for meals at that time. Trevor Howard, Cyril Cusack and Geraldine Plunkett (Glenroe) visited when making a film in Baltimore. Trevor was so pleased with one of the photos of him taken by Ian that he ordered 100 copies to use as a publicity photograph. Maureen O’Hara and her husband Charles Blair stayed when looking for property in the area which they eventually found in Glengarriff. She became a regular client as was Christy Moore when he had a house in Durrus – much to excitement of the staff. Before the private sitting-room/guest lounge became the dining room I have fond memories of great sing-songs with various friends and guests playing the baby grand piano which had come from Elsie and Ian’s home in Reenmeen, Glengarriff after it was sold. Pianists included Donal Crosbie of the Cork Examiner family, Joe Lynch (Dinny in Glenroe), Maureen Potter and Jimmy O’Dea who stayed when they were staging their revues in the Parochial Hall. Later the old bar became the venue for the Young Musicians’ Platform during the West Cork Chamber Music Festival until they outgrew the room.
Honourable Simon White (1769-1838), 1789, Glengarriff Castle, Bantry, 1823, 1831. Listed supporter of Act of Union, 1799. 1820 signed Memorial for new road Glengariff to Castletownbere. Goodwin YoungHatter, Cork probably from Banty. Obtained judgement 1807 against Simon White Esq., Glengariff Castle assigned 1825 to William O’Sullivan, Esq., Carriganass Castle, 1822 Customs and Excise Inspector responsible for Excise trials. 1821 wife seeking payment for him Mrs. J D White at Wickcourt St., Cheltenham. Notified as Magistrate of Catholic meeting in Bantry re loyalty to King 1825. Attending Protestant Conservative Society meeting 1832. Grand Jury Presentment Session 1834 Renmeen with John Lavellan Puxley. 1834, New Annual Grand Jury Contract: Patrick O’Sullivan, Earl of Bantry, Simon White, John O’Connell to keep in repair for three years, road from Bantry to Castletown between post office at Castletown and Droumgoulane bridge, £90 annually. Signed public declaration to Alexander O’Driscoll on his removal as Magistrate 1835 with Lord Bantry, Simon White, John Puxley, Arthur Hutchins, Samuel Townsend Junior and Senior, Hugh Lawton, Thomas Somerville, Richard Townsend Senior, Rev.. Alleyn Evanson, Timothy O’Donovan, Richard Townsend, Lyttleton Lyster. 1835 Subscriber Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Ireland 1837. County Freeman of Cork City voting in Cork City Election 1837. Freeman of Cork 1794.
Richard (White) -1851), 1st Earl of Bantry, Bantry House (bought 1730 from Hutchinsons as Blackrock House) Pre 1831, 1822, Created Baron White for his part in alerting British of French landing at Bantry Bay 1797, 1801 advance to Viscount Berehaven 1816 created 1st Earl of Bantry. 1799 married Margaret Hare, daughter of William Hare, Earls of Listowel (they had been Cork provision merchants). Subscriber 1821 Dr Thomas Wood’s ‘Primitive Inhabitants of Ireland. C 1810 Lord Shannon complained of a bill for £2,000 presented to British Government for entertaining French officers captured at attempted invasion. 1822 seeking support from Lord Lieutenant for Bridewell and market House in Bantry. Notified as Magistrate of Catholic Meeting on Loyalty to King 1825. 1834, New Annual Grand Jury Contract: Patrick O’Sullivan, Earl of Bantry, Simon White, John O’Connell to keep in repair for three years, road from Bantry to Castletown between post office at Castletown and Droumgoulane bridge, £90 annually. Correspondence with Chief Secretary promoting road Bantry to Skibbereen, sitting Bantry, 1835, listed 1838, Quarter Sessions, Bantry 1842. Receiver appointed to Estate rents 1837 on a charge of £46,150. Member provisional Committee projected Bandon to Bantry Railway 1845. The Irish House of Lords Journal recorded the introduction of White as Lord Bantry in Cork ‘Richard White, Esq. being by letters patent dated 24th day of March 1799 created Baron Bantry of Bantry on the County of Cork, was this day, the 22nd Jan 1799, in his robes, introduced between Lord Tyrawley, and the Lord Mock also in their robes; the Yeoman Usher of the Black Rod and Ulster King of Arms, in his coat of arms, carrying the said letters patent preceding: his lordship presented the same to the Lord Chancellor.
In the 19th century and up to the 1940s a common method of travelling from the Bear Peninsula to Bantry was by steamers operated by the Bantry Bay Steamship Company. Their schedules ties in wiht the Cork to Bandon railway. When the ports were returned to Ireland by the British in 1937 the naval base on Bere Island closed. This represented a high revenue loss to the company. Over time the road from Bantry to Castletownbere once dubbed the ‘Burma Trail’ was improved. However even with huge improvements around 15 km remains in a pretty poor state.
IN the 19th century the Somers Payne family wee associated with the Company.
1910, 1920 Dr. Patrick Joseph Cullinane, M.B, BC.H., B.A. NUI 1910 Doctor 1910 interim Registrar of Births Post mortem of deaths War of Independence Diarmuid Kingston, RIC in West Cork during War of Independence, 2013. Bantry Bay Steamship Company Annual Report 1941, Among directors Dr. P. J. Cullinane. Steamship Princess Beara . Magistrate: Dr. Patrick J. Cullinane M.D,. 1914, The Square, house Sunville (large early 19th century house) Bantry, listed 1916. The dynasty starts with Kate O’Sullivan marrying a Robert Swanton, their daughter was Anne Swanton who marries a Jeremiah Cullinane who was born in 1795. It was he who moved to Skibbereen and really founded Fields and managed it from 1829. They had the family that developed the drapery in Bantry. Bantry Bay Steamship Company Annual Report 1941, Among directors Dr. P. J. Cullinane. Steamship Princess Beara After his death an auction of his effects in the 1960s included the set of Shakespearean B & W prints at his auction early in the 1960s They were purchased by the Vickery family and hung in their hotel front lounge until its closure in 2006.
Thomas Brennan is probably of the prominent Bandon business family of who was the first Secretary of the Department of Finance. Joseph Brennan (18 November 1887 – 19 March 1976) was an Irish economist and senior Irish civil servant who served as the Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland from 1943 to 1953. ” “Brennan was born in Bandon, County Cork. In 1909, he entered Christ Church, Cambridge, where he studied Mathematics and then switched to classics. In successive years he obtained a first in Latin and Greek. In 1911, he entered the Civil Service and was assigned to the Board of Customs and Excise and a year later transferred to the finance division of the Chief Secretary’s office in Dublin Castle. During the July 1921 Truce he was introduced to Michael Collins and later became a financial advisor to the team negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty.” “In April 1922, he became the Irish Free State’s first Comptroller and Auditor General and in April of the following year he was appointed Secretary of the Department of Finance, a post he held until his retirement from the Civil Service in 1927. Later that year he was appointed Chairman of the Currency Commission. In 1925, his lengthy note on the Free State’s financial position was helpful in concluding the Irish Boundary Commission negotiations.” “When the Currency Commission was dissolved in 1943, he became the first Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland. From 1928 until his retirement in 1953 his signature appeared on all Irish Banknotes. In 1938, Joseph Brennan was conferred with an Honorary LLD by the National University of Ireland. He died in 1976.”
Pier at Adrigole, Princess of Beara
CB&SCR is Cork Bandon and South Coast Railway.
Tadhg Ó Murchadha T.D., I am availing of your permission, Sir, to raise, briefly, the subject of the following question that I addressed to the Minister for Industry and Commerce on Wednesday last:— “To ask the Minister for Industry and Commerce whether he is aware that the Bantry Bay steamship service, from Bantry to Berehaven, is about to be suspended, following the initiation of a road transport service by Córas Iompair Éireann; that this change will have the effect of cutting off Bere Island from securing supplies directly from Bantry and other trading centres, with consequent hardship to the residents of the island; and whether he will arrange for the retention of the steamship service to Berehaven, calling at Bere Island.” The Minister’s reply is in the following terms:— “I am aware that the Bantry Bay Steamship Company have suspended their weekly sailings and that Córas Iompair Eireann, in response to a demand for direct road transport, are providing a daily lorry service between Bantry and Castletownbere. “The traffic formerly consigned to Bere Island by the steamer service amounted to about 25 tons per month, and I understand that there are small boats available which are capable of dealing with this traffic. In the circumstances, I see no reason to intervene in the matter.” The Minister has had a fairly hard day and I will be as brief as I possibly can. I propose, therefore, to confine the presentation of this case to three main aspects. May I give the House some information about the history of the Bantry Bay Steamship Company that is concerned? The company was originally founded in November, 1883, and since then they have provided a service to this isolated part of the constituency of West Cork, consisting of transport of passengers, goods, live stock, etc. They provided a steamer for that service weekly. I want to give the House some particulars of the traffic carried. Bere Island has figured in this matter because I hope to convince the Minister that the peculiar position that Bere Island will now find itself in is a serious matter for the inhabitants and one that should have his attention as Minister supervising the question of transport changes and similar matters. In the year 1936 there were 500 tons of traffic carried to Bere Island, in 1937, 488 tons; in 1938 485 tons; in 1946, 365 tons. As commodities were rationed and consequently smaller parcels of the various commodities only could be sent, the reduction in the traffic is quite understandable. In the same periods the traffic to Castletownbere was represented by the following figures: In 1936, 3,274 tons; in 1937, 3,200 tons; in 1938, 3,436 tons; in 1946, 3,035 tons. I am also in possession of certain figures with regard to transport of passengers which I do not consider entirely vital to the presentation of this case and I shall not therefore trouble the House by giving the figures. Bere Island is in an extremely unfortunate position as a result of this change. May I quote from a letter which I received from one of the traders there:— “I wish to let you know that after 43 years of hard work to build up a business I find that there will be no alternative for me in a short time but to close it down. This is due to the initiation of a road transport service by Córas Iompair Éireann”. He goes on to say:— “The manager of Córas Iompair Éireann wrote to me to have arrangements made with a trader in Castletownbere to store my goods which would be dumped there by their lorries. I could not do that easily. There are no means now of getting goods into this island and I would also have to pay the trader for storing the goods in Castletownbere”. The suggestion of the Minister that various small boats owned by local people would be capable of handling this traffic seems quite unsatisfactory to the people of the island and to represent a position that cannot be at all satisfactory to the people concerned. When this boat that plied between Bantry and Castletownbere was laid up each year for the annual overhaul required by Board of Trade regulations, the goods coming to Castletownbere could be conveyed to Bere Island by means of military tender. The military tender, which was the main means of communication between the island and Castletownbere, has now gone, because Bere Island, one of the ports which figured so largely in our discussions in recent years, including our election speeches, has been completely abandoned. The entire military personnel in Bere Island has been removed, and I understand that the only military remaining there is a maintenance party consisting of four men. The military tender, therefore, is not available, and there is no means by which goods can be conveyed to the island, except in whatever way it can be done by small row-boats which may be available to residents and some of the merchants living on the island. This man says that it seems to him that a position is rapidly developing in which the island will be completely isolated, and he does not see much point in being compelled to pay taxes in a quarter of the country in which no services are available to the people. The Minister will appreciate the fact that in regard to certain goods, such as paraffin, sugar and commodities of that kind which are on demand as soon as they are available, and, in fact, some days before they are available, it is necessary that there should be some service by which they could be made available speedily. I suggest that the position of these people in Bere Island —some 300 or 400 people live on the island—will be extremely difficult. For one thing, they will have to face higher costs for the goods they receive, and, for another, the service will be irregular, unsatisfactory, inadequate and, I am afraid, infrequent, because it seems that, at certain parts of the year, it would not be possible for small row-boats to convey goods to the island because the passage is not quite easy. I do not think the arrangement would be at all satisfactory. So much for the position of the people there. Let me come now to the position of the employees of this company —not a great number, but, still, all of them bread-winners and the supports of households—who are concerned with this change. There was a crew of seven or eight on the boat and a number of other people were directly employed by the Bantry Bay Steamship Company. I understand that every single one is now out of employment. Furthermore, I am informed that it is very questionable whether, under any existing legislation, they have any pension rights, or any rights to get alternative employment, and though the number of people is not very large, a great deal of hardship is involved for the people concerned, a number of whom have spent the best years of their lives in the service of this company. May I suggest that that aspect of the case, at least, ought to have the earnest and special consideration of the Minister who does not wish, I am sure, to add to the number of people who are deprived of employment and who may be compelled to exist by some other means in the absence of that employment? I suggest further to the Minister that a transport service by road to Castletownbere is a very uncertain undertaking, from the point of view of giving service to the people. The distance from Bantry to Castletownbere is 33 miles and the road is rather perilous and difficult. That is well known to most road-users and I think it a great pity that some alternative cannot be found to putting this old-established company, which, in a modest way, gave a certain amount of employment and which, in a general way, gave good service to the people concerned, completely out of business. May I suggest that he may be able to devise some means by which a restricted road service could be permitted, together with this service for the period for which it is available to the people, that is, one run per week and that, in addition, he should examine the question of whether the alternative service provided is capable of carrying the same amount of traffic and the same bulk of traffic as was carried by the other service? It seems to be rather difficult to understand that live stock can be carried as easily by a road service as they were carried by the service which now goes out of commission, the steamship service. I have been informed, though I cannot personally vouch for it, that on the occasion of the last fair in Castletown, a number of cattle could not be removed by lorries and had to be driven by easy stages along the road between Castletownbere and Bantry. The Minister will have the advantage of certain arguments in this matter— that the people will be getting a daily service and a more up to date service. I feel that, while that may look all right on the surface, it is not at all clear that the service will be either up to date or satisfactory, having regard to the peculiar geographical position of the area concerned and to the adjacent island of Bere which will be in a position of special difficulty. I urge the Minister, not in any spirit of controversy or any spirit of Party advantage, to examine the matter further to see whether there is any possibility of meeting what I believe to be a fairly strong local view that it it a most unfortunate act which deprives them of this service. Seán F. Lemass Minister for Industry and Commerce (Mr. Lemass) The circumstances of this case are easy enough to understand, but it is not quite so easy to devise a remedy for the particular problems which may arise for individuals, by reason of the change which has taken place. In the past, goods were brought by ship from Bantry to various points along the Castletownbere peninsula. The Bantry Bay Steamship Company provided this weekly service by steamer which called at Glengarriff, Adrigole, Castletownbere and Bere Island. Early in this year, Córas Iompair Éireann provided a lorry service and the popularity of that lorry service resulted in a very substantial fall in the amount of goods available for transportation by steamer. It could be said, therefore, that the immediate cause of the steamship company’s difficulties is the operation of a lorry service by Córas Iompair Éireann, but that would be a very inaccurate description of the problem, because Córas Iompair Éireann provided the lorry service when it became clear to it that the goods were going to be moved by lorry anyhow, that the traders concerned with the movement of the goods would provide their own lorry service, if a service by Córas Iompair Éireann were not provided for them, and, consequently, although the decline of the company’s business can be traced to the beginning of the service by Córas Iompair Éireann, it is obvious that it would have lost the business anyhow, if not to the lorries of Córas Iompair Éireann, to lorries operated by private traders. I think there can be no doubt that the lorry service is immensely popular in the area. It began as a tri-weekly service, but so great was the demand for it that it is now operated three times daily. There is a lorry service three times a day from Bantry to Castletownbere, and the advantage of a daily service at lower cost is obviously greatly appreciated by the residents in the peninsula area. There is a problem in relation to Bere Island. The steamer service was of exceptional advantage to the residents on the island, and the manner by which goods can reach the island or be transported from the island now involves the use of this lorry service from Bantry to Castletownbere, and the movement of the goods over the mile of sea between Castletownbere and the island. In that regard, I understand that some small boats are available. Córas Iompair Eireann accept the obligation to provide an alternative service, but they would like to be assured that such a service is needed and that local opinion would prefer the service to be provided by it rather than by the local business people who might find provision of such a service a remunerative occupation to engage in. There are some boats there now and these boats would be adequate to move the inward traffic. There is a problem, and there is likely to be a problem, concerning the movement of cattle from the island, by reason of the unsuitability of the facilities for discharging cattle at Castletownbere, in relation to which I intend to have some further inquiries made. Personally, I cannot see what I can do. It is not practicable to restore the old position merely by persuading Córas Iompair Eireann to withdraw its service of lorries. I feel certain that the withdrawal of the lorries would be unpopular in the locality. In any event, it would not settle the problem. It seems obvious that it would merely mean that goods would travel on the lorries of private traders rather than on the lorries of the Transport Company. The reason for the withdrawal of the steamer service was the fact that there was no business for it. On July 5, the company wrote to my Department that while the usual traffic offered was close on 100 tons weekly, since the lorry services began in June, the traffic offering was on June 6, 25 tons; June 13, 35 tons; June 20, six tons. At that stage, the company decided to suspend the service. On the facts of the case, it appears to me that there is a better transport service being provided at lower cost. It is not merely a cheaper service, but a better service than the area enjoyed through the steamship company. Inquiries I have made indicate that the service is popular, and that there is no local demand for its withdrawal. On the contrary the demand has resulted in its expansion. The problem of the islands and the provision of boats for the transportation of goods to the islands will be considered by Córas Iompair Éireann, if that is desirable. If the local service is capable of handling the business Córas Iompair Éireann would prefer that. They do not deny that they have obligations to provide a service if it is not provided by other people. As regards the crew, Córas Iompair Eireann informed me that they would consider sympathetically other alternative employment for the men concerned. The captain of the ship has already been employed by the company, but they explained that it is not very easy to find employment suitable for the men in the locality. They cannot, therefore, say definitely that they will be able to provide employment for all the men concerned, but they are prepared to consider their applications as sympathetically as possible, and to make every effort to get them into some suitable employment in the locality. Personally I do not see that there is anything I can do about it. Some years ago there was a number of these coastal services from Sligo to Ballina, and Limerick to Westport, all of which have ended. They could not compete with road transport. While the Bantry Bay Steamer Company lasted longer, it looks as if the time has come when the business it formerly obtained has passed to the roads. In some cases it might be necessary, for reasons of public safety, for the State to take special measures to ensure that coastal shipping services are maintained, and following some disasters on the west coast, a committee was set up to examine the law and the obligations of the Government in regard to shipping services to islands off our coast. That committee has not reported. They dealt primarily with shipping to Tory Island, and to other islands where there is a much more definite problem involved than in the case of Bere Island. It is only one mile from the mainland, and there is no reason to expect exceptional danger in making the passage as in other cases. It seems to me that the problem of the transportation of goods to Bere Island is a matter for organisation in Castletownbere with some sort of store accommodation for goods. I think it would be better, from every point of view, that services between Castletownbere and Bere Island should be provided locally. Córas Iompair Éireann state that if they are not provided they will see what they can do. Personally, I do not see that anything else can be done. The Dáil adjourned at 7.47 p.m. until 3 p.m. on Tuesday, 23rd July, 1946. Industrial Relations
Mary Hawkes from Keel, Upton, Co Cork on the left and her sister Teresa on the extreme right
Dean Swift ‘A Patriot is One Who enables 2 Blades of Grass Grow where 1 Grew Before’. Sir Richard Griffith Road Engineer, Fits the Bill. 1824 Progress Report, Skibbereen/Bantry, Skibbereen/Crookhaven, Castletownbere/Glengariff, Kenmare/Bantry.
Griffith’s ‘Wellesley Roads’ included Skibbereen to Crookhaven, 46 km. built between 1826 and 1829 and costing £13,466,
Continued here and elsewhere in Griffith’s reports is progress following the completion of the roads, new houses in Castletownbere, three story stone houses and larger fishing vessels. On the Mizen peninsula before the road no wheeled vehicles, there alos the only place in Ireland outside of Ulster he had poor Protestants labouring on the roads.
Griffiths Cork projects known as the ‘Wellesley Roads’ included Skibbereen to Crookhaven, 46 km. built between 1826 and 1829 and costing £13,466, Bantry to Skibbereen, Crookhaven to Bantry and the road to north Cork to Banteer. His works are characterised by a high degree of engineering excellence. It was said that in building bridges he insisted on going to bed rock for foundations, the Grand Jury contractors would be happy with building on gravel resulting in so many were washed away in floods. His schemes highlights the deficiencies of the Grand Jury system and might be looked at like the recently completed motorway schemes in Ireland. The effects were dramatic, on the Mizen Peninsula they first wheeled carts made their appearance. Alexander Nimmo (1783-1832), the Scots Engineer who was also involved said the North Cork Road opened up the entire area to commerce with a beneficial result.
His colleague Alexander Nimmo a Scots Engineer reported on the opening of the road over the Boggeragh Mountain. The the whole area of North West Cork and East Kerry was accessible to the Cork market with general prosperity following. Nimmo was scathing on Captain O’Sullivan, a Landlord and road contractor on the road works around Glengarriff. He paid his workers who were his tenants in vouchers redeemable against rent.